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Science and Technology

Science and Technology

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Science and Technology

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  1. Science and Technology Effects on cities – Brooklyn Bridge Transportation Skyscrapers Crowded and confused Urban Planning – Fredrick Law Olmsted Practical applications - Printing Press (90% literacy) Airplanes (Wright brothers) Photography (George Eastman)

  2. Education for the Masses Children – Kindergarten Mandatory 8 – 14 High Schools – “provide the ladders on which the aspiring can rise.” Science, civics, and social studies Drafting, carpentry, mechanics Minorities – Not much help Not much participation Immigrants encouraged but hesitant Diverse areas of study (Sociology in factories)

  3. University Infrastructure Lincoln laid the ground work – Morrill Act Explosion of Colleges languages, sciences, law, medicine, psychology, and sociology African Americans – Freedmen’s Bureau Fisk, Atlanta, and Howard Universities Booker T. Washington (Useful) W.E.B. Du Bois (Harvard PhD.) Niagara Movement (Educate leaders)

  4. Minority Silenced Discrimination – Voting Restrictions Poll Tax Literacy Tests Grandfather Clause Legal Rights Segregation Jim Crow Laws Plessy v. Ferguson Separate but equal found Constitutional

  5. Social – 2nd class status No political influence No legal outlet Social rules – yield, remove hats, intimidation Lynching Northern cities no better Mexican Americans – Railroads Debt Peonage Chinese – Similar to African Americans, but in the West

  6. American Cultural Roots Recreation – Natural Settings inspired Amusement Parks National Advertising Campaigns Bicycling (also affordable transportation) Theater Sports (especially spectator friendly) Baseball Golf Tennis

  7. Rapid Movement of Information Printing Press – National audiences Fantastic stories Competition – Joseph Pulitzer (New York World) sin, sex, and sensation William Randolph Hearst (N.Y. Morning Journal) scandal, cruelty, and imaginary stories Literature – Mark Twain (The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn) Libraries Cheap distribution High literacy rates American Art Expands Ashcan School and others promote new, “abstract”

  8. Consumerism – Industry provided new “stuff,” FAST Department stores Marshall Fields (ladies) Chain Stores (bulk) Woolworths (596 stores) Mass Advertising Cheap printing Catalogs Sears and Roebuck Montgomery Ward Rural Free Delivery