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The Earth and Climate

The Earth and Climate

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The Earth and Climate

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  1. The Earth and Climate Chapter 1 Unit D

  2. Objectives • distinguish between weather and climate • describe the major characteristics of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the lithosphere as part of the biosphere • will define inversions • explain how climate affects the lives and activity of people and other species • distinguish between anecdotal and scientific evidence

  3. Weather vs. Climate • Weather – conditions of temperature, air pressure, cloud cover, precipitation (rain or snow), and humidity • Occur at a particular place and time

  4. Weather vs. Climate • Climate – average weather conditions that occur in a region over a long period of time (min. 30 years) • Ex. Climate of Alberta: • average temp in summer = 14 °C – 20 °C • average annual precipitation = 442 mm

  5. Telling the difference • Identify the following statements as examples of weather or of climate: • 1) today is very hot • 2) we usually get a lot of rain this time of year • PICTURES

  6. The Biosphere • The biosphere –the sphere of life – was named by Eduard Suess in 1875 but not fully described as a concept until the work of Vladimir Vernadsky in the 1920s. http://www.agci.org/classroom/biosphere/index.php

  7. The Biosphere • Thin layer of Earth with conditions suitable for supporting life • Composed of all living things on Earth and physical environment supporting them • Biotic part – living component • Abiotic part – non-living component

  8. The Biosphere • Three interacting abiotic components: • Atmosphere – layer of gases surrounding the Earth • Lithosphere – solid portion of Earth (rocks, minerals and elements) • Hydrosphere – all water on Earth (liquid, vapor, and ice) (97% salt water)

  9. Can you think of areas in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere that are NOT part of the biosphere?

  10. The Biosphere • Environmental conditions arise from interactions of these components with the Sun and interactions between the components • Creates climate

  11. Climate: Clues to the past • Work on Activity D1 (handout) • Scientists use tree cores to give us clues about past environmental conditions

  12. The Atmosphere • Rises over 500 km from surface of Earth • Mixture of gases • Most abundant gas is? Second most abundant? • How are these gases used by living things? • Also contains atmospheric dust • Very small • Include soot, pollen, micro-organisms

  13. Atmosphere

  14. Modelling Atmospheres • Work on Activity D2 • Will need graph paper • More info about planet atmospheres at: http://msnucleus.org/membership/html/k-6/uc/solar_system/5/ucss5_3a.html

  15. % Composition of Venus

  16. % Composition of 3 Atmospheres

  17. The Atmosphere • Broken up into 4 layers (determined by average air temperature) • Troposphere • Stratosphere • Mesosphere • Thermosphere • Found at different altitudes Distance above Earth’s surface from sea level

  18. Check out the Interactive Atmosphere: http://aspire.cosmic-ray.org/labs/ozone/atmosphere_real.html

  19. Troposphere • 0 – 10 km from Earth’s surface • Average temp. = 15 °C (at surface)  - 60 °C (decreases) • 80% of atmospheric gases by mass • Layer which supports life • Most CO2, water vapor and atmospheric dust • Layer where most weather occurs • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vqo9UhLNn04&feature=related (Bill Nye)

  20. Stratosphere • Above troposphere • 10 km – 50 km above surface • Temperature increases away from surface • - 60 °C  0 °C • Contains most ozone (O3(g)) making the ozone layer • Ozone captures energy from Sun, increasing temp. with altitude

  21. Mesosphere • Third layer • Temperature range: 0 °C  - 100 °C • Very little gas

  22. Thermosphere • Farthest layer • Temperature range: -100 °C  1500 °C (increases) • Very little gas

  23. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3CerJbZ-dm0&feature=related

  24. Lithosphere • Solid portion of Earth floating above semi-fluid upper mantle • Extends from Earth’s surface to 100 km below • Runs under continents and oceans • Warmed mainly by the Sun and a little bit by molten mantle • Differences in the lithosphere (i.e. amount of albedo) can affect amount of atmospheric water vapour, as well as our environmental conditions • Portion life exists on is the crust

  25. Lithosphere

  26. Lithosphere • The crust is the part of the lithosphere that life exists on, and is eggshell thin

  27. Hydrosphere • Water! • 97% is salt water in oceans • 3% fresh water  can be in lakes, streams or frozen (most fresh water is snow and glaciers, or ground water) • Amount of water stays the same • Warmed mainly by Sun

  28. Interactions • How do the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere interact? • In pairs, brainstorm some ways they interact. We will be making a class list of the interactions you came up with

  29. Altitude and Temperature • Altitude- distance above the Earth’s surface • In troposphere, tend to decrease temperature with altitude • This trend can be reversed • Inversion- reversal of normal temperature in the troposphere • May trap unusually cold air close to the ground • Happens more often near mountains • Can trap pollutants