The Earth and Climate Chapter 1 Unit D
Objectives • distinguish between weather and climate • describe the major characteristics of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the lithosphere as part of the biosphere • will define inversions
Weather vs. Climate • What’s the Difference?
Weather vs. Climate • Weather – conditions of temperature, air pressure, cloud cover, precipitation (rain or snow), and humidity • Occur at a particular place and time
Weather vs. Climate • Climate – average weather conditions that occur in a region over a long period of time (min. 30 years) • Ex. Climate of Alberta: • average temp in summer = 14 °C – 20 °C • average annual precipitation = 442 mm
Telling the difference • Identify the following statements as examples of weather or of climate: • 1) today is very hot • 2) we usually get a lot of rain this time of year • PICTURES
Climographs • Shows information about the average precipitation and temperature for an area • Line Graph – Temperature • Bar Graph – Amount of Precipitation
Analyze the two Charts with a Neighbour about the two Climates, look for similar patterns
We will go into more detail shortly about how these relate to the biomes, but let’s talk about the components of the biosphere.
The Earth’s Spheres • Use the link provided to research one of the following that you are assigned. (Use your phones for this one!) • http://www.agci.org/classroom/index.php • Atmosphere • Biosphere • Hydrosphere • Geosphere • Cryosphere • After getting your own ideas, you will put your ideas together with a group who is researching the same topic • You will share your ideas with the class after 5 minutes of working with your groups.
The Atmosphere • Rises over 500 km from surface of Earth • Mixture of gases • Most abundant gas is? Second most abundant? • How are these gases used by living things? • Also contains atmospheric dust • Very small • Include soot, pollen, micro-organisms
Compare Venus vs Earth • Can people live on Venus? Explain what you think!
The Atmosphere • Broken up into 4 layers (determined by average air temperature) • Troposphere • Stratosphere • Mesosphere • Thermosphere • Found at different altitudes Distance above Earth’s surface from sea level
Check out the Interactive Atmosphere: http://www.glencoe.com/sites/common_assets/science/virtual_labs/ES14/ES14.html
Think about it! • Why is it getting colder as we go higher in the atmosphere?
Altitude and Temperature • Altitude- distance above the Earth’s surface • In troposphere, tend to decrease temperature with altitude • This trend can be reversed • Inversion- reversal of normal temperature in the troposphere • May trap unusually cold air close to the ground • Happens more often near mountains • Can trap pollutants
Troposphere • 0 – 10 km from Earth’s surface • Average temp. = 15 °C (at surface) - 60 °C (decreases) • 80% of atmospheric gases by mass • Layer which supports life • Most CO2, water vapor and atmospheric dust • Layer where most weather occurs • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vqo9UhLNn04&feature=related (Bill Nye)
Stratosphere • Above troposphere • 10 km – 50 km above surface • Temperature increases away from surface • - 60 °C 0 °C • Contains most ozone (O3(g)) making the ozone layer • Ozone captures energy from Sun, increasing temp. with altitude
Mesosphere • Third layer • Temperature range: 0 °C - 100 °C • Very little gas
Thermosphere • Farthest layer • Temperature range: -100 °C 1500 °C (increases) due to higher concentration of solar radiation • Very little gas
The Biosphere • The biosphere –the sphere of life http://www.agci.org/classroom/biosphere/index.php
Can you think of areas in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere that are NOT part of the biosphere?
The Biosphere • Thin layer of Earth with conditions suitable for supporting life • Composed of all living things on Earth and physical environment supporting them • Biotic part – living component • Abiotic part – non-living component
The Biosphere • Three interacting abiotic components: • Atmosphere – layer of gases surrounding the Earth • Lithosphere/Geosphere – solid portion of Earth (rocks, minerals and elements) • Hydrosphere – all water on Earth (liquid, vapor, and ice) (97% salt water) • Cryosphere- All the frozen Water on the Globe
The Biosphere • Environmental conditions arise from interactions of these components with the Sun and interactions between the components • Creates climate
Lithosphere/Geosphere • Solid portion of Earth floating above semi-fluid upper mantle • Extends from Earth’s surface to 100 km below • Runs under continents and oceans • Warmed mainly by the Sun and a little bit by molten mantle • Differences in the lithosphere (i.e. amount of albedo) can affect amount of atmospheric water vapour, as well as our environmental conditions • Portion life exists on is the crust
Lithosphere • The crust is the part of the lithosphere that life exists on, and is eggshell thin
Hydrosphere • Water! • 97% is salt water in oceans • 3% fresh water can be in lakes, streams or frozen (most fresh water is snow and glaciers, or ground water) • Amount of water stays the same • Warmed mainly by Sun
Interactions • How do the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere interact? • In pairs, brainstorm some ways they interact. We will be making a class list of the interactions you came up with