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The Earth and Climate

The Earth and Climate

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The Earth and Climate

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  1. The Earth and Climate Chapter 1 Unit D

  2. Objectives • distinguish between weather and climate • describe the major characteristics of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the lithosphere as part of the biosphere • will define inversions

  3. Weather vs. Climate • What’s the Difference?

  4. Weather vs. Climate • Weather – conditions of temperature, air pressure, cloud cover, precipitation (rain or snow), and humidity • Occur at a particular place and time

  5. Weather vs. Climate • Climate – average weather conditions that occur in a region over a long period of time (min. 30 years) • Ex. Climate of Alberta: • average temp in summer = 14 °C – 20 °C • average annual precipitation = 442 mm

  6. Telling the difference • Identify the following statements as examples of weather or of climate: • 1) today is very hot • 2) we usually get a lot of rain this time of year • PICTURES

  7. Climographs • Shows information about the average precipitation and temperature for an area • Line Graph – Temperature • Bar Graph – Amount of Precipitation

  8. London, England

  9. Rome, Italy

  10. Climograph - Toronto

  11. Climograph - Whitehorse

  12. Analyze the two Charts with a Neighbour about the two Climates, look for similar patterns

  13. We will go into more detail shortly about how these relate to the biomes, but let’s talk about the components of the biosphere.

  14. The Earth’s Spheres • Use the link provided to research one of the following that you are assigned. (Use your phones for this one!) • http://www.agci.org/classroom/index.php • Atmosphere • Biosphere • Hydrosphere • Geosphere • Cryosphere • After getting your own ideas, you will put your ideas together with a group who is researching the same topic • You will share your ideas with the class after 5 minutes of working with your groups.

  15. The Atmosphere • Rises over 500 km from surface of Earth • Mixture of gases • Most abundant gas is? Second most abundant? • How are these gases used by living things? • Also contains atmospheric dust • Very small • Include soot, pollen, micro-organisms

  16. Atmosphere

  17. % Composition of Gas on Venus

  18. Compare Venus vs Earth • Can people live on Venus? Explain what you think!

  19. The Atmosphere • Broken up into 4 layers (determined by average air temperature) • Troposphere • Stratosphere • Mesosphere • Thermosphere • Found at different altitudes Distance above Earth’s surface from sea level

  20. Check out the Interactive Atmosphere: http://www.glencoe.com/sites/common_assets/science/virtual_labs/ES14/ES14.html

  21. Think about it! • Why is it getting colder as we go higher in the atmosphere?

  22. Altitude and Temperature • Altitude- distance above the Earth’s surface • In troposphere, tend to decrease temperature with altitude • This trend can be reversed • Inversion- reversal of normal temperature in the troposphere • May trap unusually cold air close to the ground • Happens more often near mountains • Can trap pollutants

  23. Troposphere • 0 – 10 km from Earth’s surface • Average temp. = 15 °C (at surface)  - 60 °C (decreases) • 80% of atmospheric gases by mass • Layer which supports life • Most CO2, water vapor and atmospheric dust • Layer where most weather occurs • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vqo9UhLNn04&feature=related (Bill Nye)

  24. Stratosphere • Above troposphere • 10 km – 50 km above surface • Temperature increases away from surface • - 60 °C  0 °C • Contains most ozone (O3(g)) making the ozone layer • Ozone captures energy from Sun, increasing temp. with altitude

  25. Mesosphere • Third layer • Temperature range: 0 °C  - 100 °C • Very little gas

  26. Thermosphere • Farthest layer • Temperature range: -100 °C  1500 °C (increases) due to higher concentration of solar radiation • Very little gas

  27. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3CerJbZ-dm0&feature=related

  28. The Biosphere • The biosphere –the sphere of life http://www.agci.org/classroom/biosphere/index.php

  29. Can you think of areas in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere that are NOT part of the biosphere?

  30. The Biosphere • Thin layer of Earth with conditions suitable for supporting life • Composed of all living things on Earth and physical environment supporting them • Biotic part – living component • Abiotic part – non-living component

  31. The Biosphere • Three interacting abiotic components: • Atmosphere – layer of gases surrounding the Earth • Lithosphere/Geosphere – solid portion of Earth (rocks, minerals and elements) • Hydrosphere – all water on Earth (liquid, vapor, and ice) (97% salt water) • Cryosphere- All the frozen Water on the Globe

  32. The Biosphere • Environmental conditions arise from interactions of these components with the Sun and interactions between the components • Creates climate

  33. Lithosphere/Geosphere • Solid portion of Earth floating above semi-fluid upper mantle • Extends from Earth’s surface to 100 km below • Runs under continents and oceans • Warmed mainly by the Sun and a little bit by molten mantle • Differences in the lithosphere (i.e. amount of albedo) can affect amount of atmospheric water vapour, as well as our environmental conditions • Portion life exists on is the crust

  34. Lithosphere

  35. Lithosphere • The crust is the part of the lithosphere that life exists on, and is eggshell thin

  36. Hydrosphere • Water! • 97% is salt water in oceans • 3% fresh water  can be in lakes, streams or frozen (most fresh water is snow and glaciers, or ground water) • Amount of water stays the same • Warmed mainly by Sun

  37. Cryosphere

  38. Interactions • How do the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere interact? • In pairs, brainstorm some ways they interact. We will be making a class list of the interactions you came up with