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The Ocean and the Earth Climate

The Ocean and the Earth Climate

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The Ocean and the Earth Climate

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  1. Special Interest Group Remote Sensing of the Coastal Zone The Oceanand the Earth Climate Rainer ReuterSIG Remote Sensing of the Coastal Zone Workshop Keynote, 07 June 2007

  2. The Oceans water hemisphere: 91% water coverage land hemisphere:51% water coverage http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi/biosphere_globes.pl

  3. University of Sheffield http://www.worldmapper.org

  4. University of Sheffield http://www.worldmapper.org Land area Hazards: floods Deads due to floodsin 1975-2000

  5. University of Sheffield http://www.worldmapper.org Land area Hazards: storms Deads due to stormsin 1975-2000

  6. University of Sheffield http://www.worldmapper.org Land area Economy: fishing Net exports of fish

  7. University of Sheffield http://www.worldmapper.org Land area Climate: CO2 CO2 emissions in 2000

  8. University of Sheffield http://www.worldmapper.org Land area Climate: CO2 Decrease of CO2 emissionsbetween 1980 and 2000

  9. University of Sheffield http://www.worldmapper.org Land area Climate: CO2 Increase of CO2 emissionsbetween 1980 and 2000

  10. The oceans: climate induced processes • Increase in temperature • Sealevel rise • Currents • Loss of sea ice • Wind, hurricanes • Carbon dioxide storage • Acidification

  11. The oceans: climate induced processes • Temperature • Sea level rise • Currents • Sea ice • Wind, hurricanes, floods • Carbon dioxide storage • Acidification, coral reefs

  12. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Temperatur in °C • Temperature Sea surface temperature maps http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/data/sst/

  13. Temperature Mean lower atmosphere (land & ocean) anomaly relative to 1951-1980 http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/ Annual mean T / °C 5-year mean year

  14. Temperature Mean anomaly of the near-surface ocean relative to 1961-1990 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2001 T / °C year

  15. T / °C annual mean 5-year mean year • Temperature Lower atmosphere vs near-surface ocean

  16. Temperature Lower atmosphere temperature changes Hansen et al., JGR, 2001 Arctic shows highest variability T /°C

  17. Temperature Lower atmosphere temperature changes Upper ocean temperature changesin 2001-2005 relative to 1870-1900 Hansen et al., PNAS 2006 T /°C

  18. Temperature Climate forcings of radiative imbalancefrom 1750 to 2000 W/m2 1,85 W/m2from measured data Hansen et al., JGR, 2005

  19. Temperature Climate forcings in the NASA GISS climate model 1,0 W/m2 +0,7°C Atm.+0,4°C Ocean ? 0,85 W/m2 are still„in the pipeline“ Hansen et al., Science, 2005

  20. ·1022 J ·1022 J 0-300 m 0-700 m 0-3000 m • Temperature The excess energy remains in the near-surface layer! Levitus et al., GRL, 2005 Increase in the surface layer: +0,4°C Average in the water column: +0,04°C in 1955-1998

  21. Temperature Uptake of excess energy from 1955 to 1998 ·1022 J 84%! Levitus et al., GRL, 2005

  22. What could happen with the sea level?

  23. Sealevel rise 2080-2099 relative to 1980-1999 IPCC WG1 2007

  24. Sealevel rise 2080-2099 relative to 1980-1999 due to ocean density & circulation Scenario A1B IPCC WG1 2007

  25. Could ocean currents change?

  26. Currents Near-surface waters

  27. Currents The conveyour belt Broecker W S (1991) Oceanography, 4, 79-89 http://www.ciencia.cl/CienciaAlDia/volumen4/numero2/articulos/articulo6.html

  28. Currents Outflow from the Arctic through the Greenland Sea! The formation of sea icein the Arctic causes the arctic convergencein the Greenland Sea... UNEP/GRID-Arendal

  29. ... if there is any sea ice!

  30. Arctic sea ice

  31. Arctic sea ice

  32. Sea ice Sea ice volume until 2100: results of the model HadCM3 http://www.metoffice.com/research/hadleycentre/

  33. ...the greenhouse gas CO2

  34. Carbon dioxide Mauna Loa, Hawaii:http://www.mlo.noaa.gov/ Zeitserie des CO2in der Atmosphäre seit 1959

  35. Carbon dioxide Carbon inventory CO2 reservoirsin 109 to Transport in 109 to/year http://www.metoffice.com/research/hadleycentre/

  36. Carbon dioxide Standing stock CO2 reservoirsin 109 to Transport in 109 to/year http://www.metoffice.com/research/hadleycentre/

  37. 6.6 • Carbon dioxide Anthropogenous inputto the atmosphere CO2 reservoirsin 109 to Transport in 109 to/year http://www.metoffice.com/research/hadleycentre/

  38. 6.6 • Carbon dioxide 3.4 Accumulationin the atmosphere CO2 reservoirsin 109 to Transport in 109 to/year http://www.metoffice.com/research/hadleycentre/

  39. 1.2 2 6.6 • Carbon dioxide 3.4 Accumulation in the biosphere CO2 reservoirsin 109 to Transport in 109 to/year http://www.metoffice.com/research/hadleycentre/

  40. 1.2 2 6.6 • Carbon dioxide 3.4 Accumulation in the biosphere Turnover timeis 10 years Turnover time is 0,06 yearsor 3 weeks http://www.metoffice.com/research/hadleycentre/

  41. Carbon dioxide Net ocean-atmosphere export in mol/(m2·year) in 1995 Integral: -2,2(±0,4)·109 to Feely et al., Oceanography 14(4) 2001

  42. Thank You!