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Ectoderm Fate

Ectoderm Fate

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Ectoderm Fate

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  1. Ectoderm Fate • Neural tube development • Building the brain • You can see a lot by looking! The eye • Epidermis development

  2. Brief overview on Ectoderm fate

  3. Neural Tube Development • Primary and Secondary Neurulation. • Primary Neurulation is Anterior portion of NT development, whereas posterior is secondary neurulation

  4. Primary Neurulation

  5. Neural Tube closure • Either single or multiple points of closure • A-P neuropores • Problems with closure • Spina bifida • Anencephaly • craniorachischisis

  6. Control of neural tube closure • Genetic factors: • Pax3, Sonic hedgehog, and openbrain • Environmental factors: • Cholesterol and Folate

  7. Secondary Neurulation • Formation of Medullary cord

  8. Brain Development: AV axis

  9. Brain Development: DV axis

  10. Vertebrate Eye

  11. Eye Field formation • Otx gene expression is high • BMP, wnt signaling low • Pax6 master regulator

  12. Too much of a good thing? • Increase in Sonic hedgehog • Widespread decrease in Pax6

  13. Retina differentiation • Most Ventral cells=Pax2; optic stalk • Dorsal cells= BMPs, Rx1 • Rx1 regulates Pax6 and Six3

  14. Retina differentiation • Fate of neuroblast determined by translation, not transcription • Photoacceptor genes regulated by Xotx5b • Xotx2 and Xvsx1 specify bipolar neurons. • All transcribed in retinal cells • Translation regulated by miRNAs • miR129 • miR155 • miR214 • miR222

  15. Lens/Cornea differentiation

  16. Epidermis: The other Ectoderm descendent

  17. Development of Hair

  18. Development of Hair

  19. Development of Hair