KEY QUESTIONSTo be answered by end of lesson… • What is foreign policy? • What should be the goal of a nation’s foreign policy? America’s? • Why and how has America’s role in foreign affairs changed over the course of history? • What role does history play in determining foreign policy? What role should it play? • What factors should government officials consider when deciding whether or not to involve America in matters abroad?
What is foreign policy? • It is how the US govt. deals with other countries in trade, war, & peace • Important questions in US foreign policy shape US treatment of other countries
What is foreign policy? (cont.) • Over time, the 2 most important questions that guide US foreign policy (FP) are • Isolation v. intervention debate • Concern for ourselves or for citizens of other countries? Logo for Save Darfur Coalition US marines in Fallujah (Iraq)
Question: What should the role of the United States be in the world? Should we stay out of everyone’s business? Should we be the world’s policeman? What do you think? Why?
This must be determined step by step. First, what is a nation? • a territorial division containing a body of people of a single culture and is usually characterized by relatively large size and independent status
and what is nationalism Merriam-Webster defines it as: • loyalty and devotion to a nation; especially : a sense of national consciousness exalting one nation above all others and placing primary emphasis on promotion of its culture and interests as opposed to those of other nations or supranational groups • a nationalist movement or government
Now that we know what a nation is… what nationalism is… what is national interest? • It is defined as “the country’s perceived needs and aspirations in relation to other sovereign states constituting the external environment.” It can relate to • Economic interests • Power/survival • Morality/power • Realistic/idealistic considerations
What are the basic national interests of the United States? • Defense of the country • Economic prosperity • A favorable world order • Promotion of our values MOST VITAL LEAST VITAL Peripheral Interest Survival Interest Vital Interest Major Interest Can you think of examples of these different types of interests?
Why and how has America’s role in foreign affairs changed over the course of history?
Why does America’s FP change? • World events/US strength • Domestic needs • Political attitudes of the people • Political attitudes of Congress • Economic trends • Presidential visions for America’s role in the world
Phases of American FP • 1780s-1840s: ISOLATION & NEUTRALITY • 1840s-1910s: EXPANSIONISM & IMPERIALISM • 1914-1917: NEUTRALITY • 1917-1920: INTERVENTION • 1920- late 1930s: ISOLATION & NEUTRALITY
Phases of American FP (cont.) • Late 1930s-1945: INTERVENTION • 1945-1975: CONTAINMENT of COMMUNISM, NUCLEAR ARMS RACE • 1975-1990: DÉTENTE/COVERT ACTION • 1990-2001: STABILIZING MIDDLE EAST • 2001-Present: WAR ON TERRORISM
What factors should government officials consider when deciding whether or not to involve America in matters abroad? We’ll return to this question…
What role should history play in determining foreign policy? • Actively read “They Will Have Flies Walking Across Their Eyeballs” from Stephen Kinzer’s Overthrow: America’s Century of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq. • Select at least 10 examples from the chapter that stand out to you about how America’s foreign policy over the course of history has impacted recent events. • We will have an inner/outer discussion on your findings, and then we’ll draw conclusions about the “big” question.