American Foreign Policy From Isolation to World Power By Matt Dummeldinger, Luke Bradshaw and Dan “Dirty” Murt
Washington at the head • War breaks out between Britain and France • Washington declares the Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 despite greatly offending Jeffersonians • Genet is sent over to America and deported after trying to gain support for the French cause • Britain occupies land given to America in Treaty of 1783 and incites Native Americans to riot. Britain also impresses U.S. sailors • Jay Treaty – British “evacuate” and pay for ships
The precedent • Washington issues his Farewell Address • Avoid permanent political alliances; use temporary economic ones – sets tone of American politics for following years Adams moves in
Foreign provocation • XYZ Affair, and naval warfare with France • Despite the outrage of the XYZ Affair and intense popular opinion to fight with France, Adams follows the Farewell Address signs the Convention of 1800 and ends the Franco-American Treaty • Louisiana Purchase • Jefferson shrewdly plays into the French and British rivalry and purchases a vast amount of territory
Even more foreign provocation! • Barbary Pirates raid merchant ships and blackmail countries for safety • Jefferson gets involved, the first official American offensive • Once it’s over, he creates the mosquito fleet in order to avoid future conflict on the high seas • British frigate opens fire on Chesapeake and impresses sailors – country in uproar • Jefferson uses the Non-Importation Act and the Embargo Act just so that America can remain in isolation. Later replaced with the Non-Intercourse Act. • Shows attempt to avoid war with economic measures
WAR OF 1812 – America’s first “big one’ • British were arming Indians, impressing sailors and violating America’s rights as a neutral • After a lousy war, save for the Battle of New Orleans, the Treaty of Ghent restores pre-war boundaries • Last conflict with Britain
Mini Disputes with britain • Arms race on the Great Lakes with Britain • Leads to Rush-Bagot Agreement, which created friendly relations between America and Canada and the longest unfortified border in the world • Caroline Affair ends with an American ship plunging over the Niagara Falls • Solved by Webster-Ashburn Treaty • Oregon Dispute settled by Americans and British • Americans compromise on the boundary but essentially obtain Oregon to avoid two wars
MONROE DOCTRINE • Russia was moving in on Alaska and Britain was trying to tie America’s hands with the Cuba situation • MONROE DOCTRINE IS BORN • Monroe declares noncolonization and nonintervention to the European powers • Latin America is the United State’s area – the republics should be allowed to thrive • GUIDES AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY IN LATIN AMERICA
Tantalizing TEXAS – Manifest Destiny • After receiving Florida, Americans were still greedy for land and set their eyes on Texas • Americans become unofficially involved in the Texas War for Independence • Jackson recognizes the Lone Star Republic but doesn’t admit them to the Union because it would ignite the salve issue • Polk has no such quarrel and provokes war with Mexico on account of Manifest Destiny • In a brilliant campaign America gains both California and Texas and pays Mexico (as pity)
New adventures • The continuous waterway from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean appeals to many and eyes turn towards Latin America • Britain and America make the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty saying that neither would control the waterway • Matthew C. Perry cracks the Japanese shell and opens Japan to American markets • Signs Treaty of Kanagawa, which provides for fair treatment of shipwrecked sailors and American coaling rights • Sets Japan up for industrialization and the future Japan-America conflict
SYNOPSIS OF FOUNDING TO LINCOLN • Foreign Policy was first dictated and shaped according to Washington’s Farewell Address. While it still has impact on later American history, it is most felt during this time period • The Monroe Doctrine was the next major influence on American foreign policy. It essentially stated that North America and South America were the United States’ concern and that the Europeans powers are not to interfere. Later leads to the Roosevelt Corollary. • The issue of slavery becomes more and more pressing with the addition of more territory – as a result, American foreign policy gets put on the back burner and domestic issues and conflicts among states come to the forefront.
Lincoln and Johnson: Civil War and Diplomacy Although Lincoln’s presidency revolved dominantly around domestic upset, his presidency also affected Anglo-American and Franco-American relations as well. Johnson’s presidency saw both expansion and foreign upset as well Union interception of Confederate diplomats: Prevention of European Recognition of Confederacy • Trent Affair • Union Naval Blockade against Confederates
Lincoln and Johnson Continued • French Intervention in Mexico (Mexico supported by U.S.; France Withdraws) • Transatlantic cable (Cyrus Field) • Purchase of Alaska: “Seward’s Folly”
Foreign Policy During The Gilded Age The Gilded Age continued to revolve around domestic policy and federal corruption within America at the time, but American foreign policy (especially toward Indians) also laid the foundation for future political engagements to bring America to the world stage • Sioux and Apache Wars (Little Big Horn; Custer) • Dawes Severalty Act American Victory; Sioux moved to Reservations Allocated Indian lands among tribes
Foreign Policy During The Gilded Age Continued Ban on Chinese labor immigration • Chinese Exclusion Act • Wounded Knee Massacre; 153 dead Lakota • Venezuelan Boundary Dispute (U.S. intervention in Latin America begins) • First Pan American Conference
Progressive Foreign Policy American foreign policy during the Progressive Era brought America to the world stage and opened America up to imperialist ventures and international agreements Cuban And Philippine occupation Spanish-American War • DeLome Letter • Teller Amendment • Platt Amendment • Treaty of Paris
Progressive Foreign Policy Continued • Hawaii Annexation • Open Door Policy (Boxer Rebellion) • Panamanian Revolution and Canal construction • Roosevelt Corollary • Gentlemen's Agreement • Root-Takahira Agreement • Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy • Lodge Corollary (no strategic foreign territorial holdings) U.S. intervention in Latin American conflicts No Japanese immigrants Japanese isolation over Securing U.S. interests in Latin America financially
Foreign Policy During WWI WWI set the stage to prove America’s competence to the world and provided America with the opportunity to rise to the diplomatic challenge Pre- WWI: Mexico Foreign Policy • “Watchful Waiting” Policy (non-interventionist for undemocratic Mexico) • Tampico incident • Veracruz Occupation
WWI Foreign Policy Continued • Neutrality Proclamation • Sussex Pledge • Zimmerman Note • Fourteen Points • League of Nations • Versailles Treaty No more unrestricted submarine warfare (broken) German-Mexican alliance against U.S.; public outcry against Germany Wilson’s Peace Plan U.S. didn’t join (irreconcilables) Heavy German war debt
Foreign Policy from the Great Depression to the brink of WWII After WWI, foreign policy shifted from Latin America and the European warfront to immigration, disarmament, and reparations plans that would leave America separate from WWII until 1936 • Emergency Quota Act of 1921 (strict restrictions on Southeastern European immigrants) • Immigrant Act of 1924 (more restrictions on “undesirable” immigrants) The 1920’s: Limited Immigration Policy
Foreign Policy from the Great Depression to the brink of WWII Continued Attempts to ease German war debt • Dawes Plan • Young Plan • Hoover Moratorium on War Debts • Washington Disarmament Conference • London Naval Conference • Kellogg-Briand Pact • Stimson Doctrine • Good Neighbor Policy (non-intervention in Latin America with beneficial reciprocal trade agreements) Attempts to reduce armaments proportionally among powers Weak attempt to “outlaw war” Non-recognition of Chinese Manchuria
By and large, American foreign policy from Lincoln to the dawn of WWII showed a shift from attempts to secure foreign interests to the benefit of a country in the midst of a Civil War, to attempts to secure international peace from a country who effectively used foreign policy to not only earn foreign influence and territory, but to maintain it as well. American foreign policy was revolutionized between 1861 and 1933, in that the U.S. left North America to annex territory like Hawaii and Alaska, as well as taking charge in the Caribbean under Roosevelt, and taking charge in Europe under Wilson. The term to best describe American foreign policy during this time period would be “globalization”, in that by 1933, the U.S. had become a dominant world force in not only democracy, but diplomacy as well.
Pre-WWII Good Neighbor Policy is set in to motion to improve relations with Latin America. Pan-American Conference held to discuss trade between the South American Countries and the US.
Pre-WWII (cont.) • US tries to remain isolated from European problems and avoid involvement once Germany invades Poland. • The First Neutrality Act is passed to avoid a repeat of WWI. It banned the shipment of war materials to belligerents and forbade U.S. citizens to travel on belligerent vessels. • Subsequent Neutrality Acts are passed, but they become progressively weaker. • The US eventually allowed trade on a “Cash and Carry” basis, warring nations had to come to the US with cash in hand if they wanted to trade. • Lend Lease and Destroyer Acts make the US look not so neutral.
Entry into WWII • US declares war on Japan immediately following the attack on Pearl Harbor. • Allies invade North Africa and move up towards France and Germany through Italy. • Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin regularly hold conferences to discuss the aims and progress of the war (Cairo, Tehran, Yalta)
End of WWII • US makes the decision to drop the first atomic bomb to end WWII. This leads to every other nation funneling resources into creating their own WMD. • Potsdam Conference divvies out portions of Germany for reconstruction. • San Francisco Conference created the UN, in which the US is one of 7 nations that has veto power.
Cold War • US policy becomes aggressively interventionist. • The US takes a stand against the USSR’s communist regime with the famous proclamation “Not another inch”. • Truman doctrine promises to aid any country that attempts to dispel or defend against communists. • The US “fights” communism in China, Cuba, Korea, etc. • The space race and arms race are byproducts of the Cold War. • The Cold War also results in American paranoia of the communists
50’s • US plays negotiator in the Suez Crisis. • US supports Batista in the Cuban Revolution, opposing the Communist Fidel Castro. • Satellites begin to enter space as a result of the space race and both the US and Russia come to possess hydrogen bombs. • Eisenhower sends CIA agents to Guatemala to overthrow JacoboArbenzGuzmán.
Korea • North Korea invades South Korea unprovoked, which is followed by an immediate call to action of the UN by the US and South Korea. • The North Korean Communists were supplied and trained by the Soviets while receiving extra support from the newly communist Chinese. • The conflict is still active to this day although subdued by armistice.
US Involvement in Cuba • As a result of Castro’s victory in the Cuban Revolution leads to a group of CIA trained Cuban exiles enlisted by the US to invade Cuba. • US demands that Cuba not have missiles after reconnaissance show Soviet missile bases under construction in Cuba. • US U-2 spy plane is shot down in the USSR, the US is forced to admit that it had been spying on the Soviets, embarrassing itself on an international scale. • The crisis brings the world the closest it had ever been to nuclear war. • The crisis ends with the removal of missiles from both Cuba and Turkey.
Vietnam • US fights with the democratic South Vietnam against the communist North Vietnam (Vietcong). • The US destroys North Vietnamese cities with strip bombing, while the Vietcong turn the tide with the use of surprise attacks (Tet Offensive). • The US eventually withdraws after 20 years of occupying Vietnam.
Late 70’s • US plays negotiator once more with the Camp David Accords. • The US creates legislation that will give the Panama Canal to the Panamanians. • Carter refuses to negotiate with the Iranian terrorists who hold US citizens hostage. • Aid given to the Boat People of Vietnam. • US recognizes mainland China. • Boycott of 1980 Olympics shows that the anti-communist feeling is still alive in the US.
CONCLUSION • America became much more heavily involved in foreign affairs as a result of WWII. The leaders recognized that a conflict the like of WWII needed to be avoided, and as a result, many treaties and checks on world powers are formed • The United States certainly has strayed from Washington’s Farewell Address and become a major force in the modern world.