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American Foreign Policy

American Foreign Policy

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American Foreign Policy

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  1. American Foreign Policy From Adams to Monroe

  2. Review: Washington’s Military Conflict Theory • What conditions influenced the formation of Washington’s military conflict theory? • International Relationships • Economics • Military Preparedness • National Security • Do you want to include any of these conditions in your military conflict theory?

  3. Key Terms • Impressment • Leopard-Chesapeake Affair • Embargo Act of 1807 • Chief Tecumseh • War Hawks • Treaty of Ghent • Monroe Doctrine

  4. Format for These Notes • Challenge • Solution • Outcome • Example: Washington’s Foreign Policy

  5. Washington’s Foreign Policy • Challenge • France declares war on Great Britain and seeks American support. • America has no army, no money, and is surrounded by unfriendly powers (Britain & Spain). • Solution • Sign a treaty of peace with Great Britain (Jay Treaty). • Promote American neutrality & isolationism • Outcome • British abandon forts in the Ohio Valley. Strengthen economic trade relations • Strengthen economic trade relations

  6. American Foreign Policy1793-1825 Research how each American president from 1796 - 1825 dealt with the challenge of maintaining Washington’s foreign policy of neutrality and isolationism. Neutrality

  7. 1798: France begins attacking American ships trading with Great Britain Isolationism sounded good in theory. But it was often hard to stay out of another countries’ conflicts.

  8. American Foreign Policy1793-1825 Problem(s) Solution(s) Outcome(s)

  9. American Foreign PolicyCase Study #2 • John Adams • Problem • French Seizing American Ships • The XYZ Affair • Federalist war fever towards France builds • Solution • Video Resources • History Alive page 164

  10. French “Diplomacy” • French foreign Minister Tallyrand. • Before he agreed to see the American delegates he demanded: • A $250,000 personal bribe • A $12,000,000 loan from the United States • A formal apology from the American president

  11. The XYZ Affair

  12. The Federalist Response • The Federalists demanded that the United States go to war with France. • Why did the Federalists favor Great Britain over France?

  13. National Security National Pride Political Popularity Is the government justified in leading its people into military conflict under these conditions?

  14. American Foreign PolicyCase Study #2 • Outcome(s) • What was the result of Adam’s devotion to finding a peaceful solution to the ongoing threats from France? • History Alive page 165

  15. Washington’s Foreign Policy Instruction • Be honest and just towards all nations. • Work for peace and harmony with all. • Do not pick favorites. • Steer clear of permanent alliances. • Trade freely with all nations. What grade would you give?

  16. American Foreign Policy1793-1825 Problem(s) Solution(s) Outcome(s)

  17. 1803: France was at war with the English AGAIN And they seized American ships that traded with their enemies AGAIN!

  18. America the PWND! :p $ $

  19. American Foreign PolicyCase Study #3 • Thomas Jefferson • Problem • Impressment • The Leopard-Chesapeake Affair • The Barbary Pirates • Solution • Video Resources • History Alive page 166

  20. The Barbary Pirates

  21. American Foreign PolicyCase Study #3 • Outcome(s) • What price did the United States pay to deal with the Barbary pirates? • Did Jefferson’s actions against France and England protect American shipping? History Alive page 167

  22. Washington’s Foreign Policy Instruction • Be honest and just towards all nations. • Work for peace and harmony with all. • Do not pick favorites. • Steer clear of permanent alliances. • Trade freely with all nations. What grade would you give?

  23. Writing Prompt • Choose one president we have studied: Washington, Adams, or Jefferson. Explain this president’s Military Conflict Theory. Be sure to explain the problems this president suffered, the solutions they chose, and the outcome that followed. How did these events influence their Military Conflict Theory?

  24. American Foreign Policy1793-1825 Problem(s) Solution(s) Outcome(s)

  25. American Foreign PolicyCase Study #4 • James Madison • Problem • France & England AGAIN • British Impressment AGAIN • Native American conflicts • “War Hawks” in Congress • Solution • Video Resources • History Alive page 168

  26. Napoleon Boneparte By 1812 the emperor of France had conquered Italy and Poland, huge parts of the Germanic nations and Spain, and was leading an invasion of Russia. Great Britain was obsessed with conquering France, and captured any ships they could shipping goods to their enemy, impressing any crew they chose.

  27. Napoleon’s Conquests

  28. War Hawks • A group of young men who dominated congress. • Democratic-Republicans, like Madison. • Represented frontier districts, whose settlers sought to expel the British from Canada, in order to quell hostile Indians and gain more land.

  29. Chief Tecumseh • White settlers pushing west fight Indians. • Chief Tecumseh and his brother, the Prophet, unite many tribes and fight back. • It’s discovered that Indians use British weapon bought in Canada. • Tecumseh allies with Gen. Brock against the U.S.

  30. The Sacking of Washington D.C.

  31. Document Based Questions (DBQ) • Step 1: Examination • Identify the title, date(s), and author(s) of the document. • Step 2: Document Information • Why do you think this document was written? • What evidence in the document helps you to know why it was written? • Step 3: Analysis • What does this document tell you about life in the United States at the time it was written

  32. OutcomesThe Hartford Convention • Meeting of New England Federalists in Oct. 1814 to discuss their grievances over the War of 1812. • Representatives from Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont.

  33. Convention Final Report Proposed Amendments to the U.S. Constitution: • No embargo past 60 days • 2/3 Congressional majority to go to war, admit a new state, or embargo • Remove ⅗ representation advantage of the South • Limit future Presidents to one term • Require each President to be from a different state than his predecessor.

  34. Outcome: Federalists loose credibility with the American People

  35. OutcomeThe Treaty of Ghent • Napoleon surrenders in Spring 1814, ending the necessity to block American trade and impress sailors. • The British people want an end to ALL wars and the taxes it requires. • Peace negotiations open in Ghent, the Netherlands, in August 1814. • The agreement signed on Dec.24 1814 restored all borders to their previous locations.

  36. Outcome: National Pride in the U.S. Sours The Battle of New Orleans – Jan.8th, 1815

  37. American Foreign Policy1793-1825 Problem(s) Solution(s) Outcome(s)

  38. American Foreign PolicyCase Study #5 • James Monroe • Problem • European colonies in South America are fighting for freedom • Britain wants to stop European expansionism to protect their new market • Britain asks U.S. for an alliance to stop Europe • Solution • Video Resources • History Alive page 171

  39. The Monroe Doctrine • Pres. Monroe declared in his State of the Union address 1823 • The nations of North and South America would “not be considered as subjects for colonization by European Powers.” • The United States was strong enough to oppose any attempt by Europe to interfere with the Americas.

  40. American Foreign Policy1793-1825 RESOLVED: President Madison was justified in shifting American foreign policy from isolationism to intervention. Isolationism Isolationism WAR! Isolationism Isolationism

  41. Paragraph Writing for History • You have in front of you a practice outline for a paragraph about Pres. James Monroe. It models academic writing in the history classroom. Aspects of a successful history paragraph are: • Thesis • Topic Sentence • Two pieces of Evidence • An explanation of the evidence • Opposition/Refutation • Conclusion

  42. Opposition/Refutation • Opposition = What would Washington, Jefferson, or Adams say to oppose Madison’s decision to go to war? • Refutation = how do you refute (prove false) this argument?