American Foreign Policy 1789-1920 A Brief Overview Clickers to Ch. 48!
Lecture Goals: Understand and analyze major themes and events of U.S. foreign policy 1789 to 1920. Compare and contrast U.S. foreign policy during various periods Evaluate the most effective foreign policy goals and actions for the U.S.
What is Foreign Policy? A country’s relationship with other countries USS Chesapeake Naval Act of 1794 Captured War of 1812 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Chesapeake_%281799%29
What determines U.S. Foreign Policy? National interest Democratic ideals Defense Department (originally War Dept) vs. State Department Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State 1789 http://www.financialsense.com/editorials/cliffkule/2008/images/1119_clip_image001.jpg
• How active should America be in world affairs? • Isolationism Focus on domestic rather than international affairs • Internationalism Assume an active role in international affairs
Isolationist or Internationalist? • Isolationist: Our National Interest (for Trade?) • Internationalist: Universalist – Interests/rights of others vs. What’s best for USA A girl performs domestic labour in a rural Mauritanian encampment. The International Labour Organization estimates there are at least 10 million working children in Africa alone. http://www.un.org/en/rights/
YOUR VIEW: What path should the U.S. follow in foreign affairs today ? Why? • 1. Totally isolationist • 2. Mostly isolationist • 3. Mostly internationalist • 4. Totally internationalist
An Endless Argument: • Should American policy be based on our own national interests (protecting our independence, borders, security, power and interests in peace) or should we take the “high road” and base our policies on moral principles (human rights, democracy, freedom) that could serve as a model for others?
Foreign Policy Goals • Preserve independence and integrity • Security for nation and citizens • Prosperity for nation and citizens • Revenge or prestige? • Protection/expansion of ideals or ideas? http://a.media.community.abcfamily.go.com/images/american-flag-1%5B1%5D.jpg http://www.coldwar.hu/html/en/finding_aids/flags/Flag_USSR.jpg
YOUR VIEW: Which goal should have been the focus of the U.S. in the early years of our country? Why? • 1. Preserve independence • 2. Maintain security for the nation • 3. Seek prosperity for the nation • 4. Seek revenge or prestige • 5. Spread ideals or ideas
Factors that influence Foreign Policy • Geography • Military needs/power • Economic needs/power • Ethnic/cultural ties • History DISCUSS: How do these impact the USA? Factors change over time – WHY?
PHASES OF U.S. FOREIGN POLICY 1. ISOLATIONISM (1789 – 1890s) Nonentanglement 2. CONTINENTAL EXPANSION (1830 – 1890) Manifest Destiny 3. IMPERIALISM (1890s to ….) Expanding U.S. Power, Land, Values around the world
French Alliance of 1778 • Two treaties- commercial agreement and a political/military alliance • We needed France to win our independence • 1789 French Revolution Aggressive & radical policies England goes to war with France Should USA defend France? • Jefferson (good faith), Hamilton (no obligation), and Washington’s (neutral) positions
Washington’s Farewell Address Established concept of isolation (dominant US foreign policy until 20th C): “Good faith and justice toward all nations” “Steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world” http://thebsreport.files.wordpress.com/2009/05/president_george_washington1.jpg
YOUR VIEW: In 1796, would you have agreed with Washington? Why or why not? • 1. Completely disagree • 2. Mostly disagree • 3. Mostly agree • 4. Completely agree
Jefferson’s First Inaugural Address “kindly separated by nature and a wide ocean from the exterminating havoc of one quarter of the globe” Jefferson expanded upon Washington’s warning against “permanent alliances” to include “entangling alliances”and reinforced the principle of non-involvement in European wars. Thomas Jefferson
Jay’s Treaty (1794) Pinckney Treaty (1795) XYZ Affair (1797) Louisiana Purchase (1803) Embargo & Non-Intercourse Acts (1807) Some Key Early Decisions http://www.sonofthesouth.net/texas/pictures/louisiana-purchase-map.jpg
War of 1812 • Illustrated the nation’s willingness to violate the policy of neutrality when it became advantageous to do so. • Demonstrated the difficulty of non-involvement when trade and neighbors bring us into contact with European powers.
Treaty of Ghent (1815) Ends War with Britain Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817) US-Britain Naval compromise on Great Lakes Adams-Onis Treaty (1819) Agreement with Spain expands US to Pacific After the War of 1812 http://memyselfandhi.files.wordpress.com/2008/06/war1812.gif
John Quincy Adams: Secretary of State to James Monroe 1817-1825 • Very successful • Clear vision of U.S. policy • Philosophy: National interests should determine foreign policy http://haysvillelibrary.files.wordpress.com/2009/01/john-quincy-adams-2.jpg
Adams-Onis Treaty gives Florida (strategic importance) to US, eliminated Spain from contention for Oregon Territory Architect of Monroe Doctrine Adams’ Vision: expansion of US to the Pacific, pursuit of good relations with newly independent nations in Latin America John Quincy Adams: Accomplishments
The Monroe Doctrine (1823) Stressed America’s special interests in the Western Hemisphere and remains, with some modifications, viable today. In response to fears that European powers including Britain might expand its influence into the Western Hemisphere.
KEY GUIDING STRATEGY OF ISOLATIONISM: • No permanent friends, only permanent objectives
Trends Over Time 1789-1824 • Tendency toward isolation • Creation of more secure borders, & push West • Navigation of waterways (Mississippi and later seas) • Increased respect from foreign nations • Increased boldness of some American policy-makers • Links with newly established Latin American nations
YOUR VIEW: From 1789-1824, which goal did the U.S. put first? • 1. Preserve independence • 2. Maintain security for the nation • 3. Seek prosperity for the nation • 4. Seek revenge or prestige • 5. Spread ideals or ideas
Westward Expansion evolves into Manifest Destiny Movement of the “frontier line” from the Fall line in the Piedmont, to the Appalacians (Proclamation of 1763), to the Mississippi River is followed by the call for Continental Expansion as our Manifest Destiny
Manifest Destiny “And that claim is by right of our manifest destiny to overspread and possess the whole of the continent which providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us… The God of nature and of nations has marked it for our own…” John L. Sullivan, Dec. 1845 John L. Sullivan
Discuss: What feelings & values are conveyed? American Progress by Jonathan Gast, 1872
Original U.S. + Northwest Territory (1783 GB) Louisiana Purchase (1803, FR) British Cession (1818 Rush-Bagot Treaty) Spanish Cession (1819, FL- from SP) Texas Annexation (1845) Oregon Country (1846 BR) Mexican Cession (1848 Mex War) Gadsden Purchase (1853 Mex) Westward Expansion & Foreign Policy 1783-1853
American Indian Policy • Expansion has implications for American Indians • Resist, co-exist, migrate • Treaty of Greenville (1795) NW Terr. • Jefferson- Trans-Mississippi “reserve” • Jackson- Indian Removal Act 1830
Major Indian Wars 1810s-1830s • Old Northwest Territory (Tecumseh, The Prophet, the Fox, etc) • The Creeks (Alabama, Florida, Western Tennessee • Seminole- in Florida
Mexican American War (1846-1848) • James K. Polk and Manifest Destiny • Was this war consistent with previous US foreign policy? • Who supported War with Mexico? • Henry Thoreau and Civil Disobedience (jailed because he refused to pay a federal taxes which he believed paid for an unjust war)
Aftermath of the Mexican American War for Indians • Continual Warfare on Great Plains & West • 1870’s movement to Reservations • Battle of Little Big Horn (1876) - one of the few Indian “victories” • The Massacre at Wounded Knee 1890- one of the last of many brutal defeats • Dawes Severalty Act, 1887
Northern Boundary Extends: • Warhawks in 1812 • Rush-Bagot Treaty 1817 • Convention of 1818 • Caroline Affair 1837-8 • Aroostook War 1839 • Webster-Ashburton Treaty, 1842 • Buchanan-Pakenham Treaty, 1846 • Alaska Purchase and Seward, 1867
YOUR VIEW: From 1830 to 1890 (Manifest Destiny), which goal did the U.S. put first? Explain. • 1. Preserve independence • 2. Maintain security for the nation • 3. Seek prosperity for the nation • 4. Seek revenge or prestige • 5. Spread ideals or ideas
Late 19th Century Imperialism: The USA Enters the World Stage • Economic motivations: new markets, new resources • Ideas about racial supremacy driven by Social Darwinism • Manifest Destiny-extended (Frontier over 1890) • Military considerations (strategic, defensive) • Alfred Mahan & “The New Navy” • US exceptionalism (1st“crusade” for the U.S.)
Early Non-Contiguous Expansion • Offer to purchase Cuba from Spain in 1848 and 1854 • Alaska 1867 • Pago-Pago, Samoa 1878 • Pearl Harbor 1884 • Hawaii 1898
1896 Republican Party Platform • Strong imperialist platform • Economic expansion guides position • Overseas expansion good for US industry • “sympathy for Cuba” • Nicaraguan Canal and purchase of Danish West Indies • Annexation of Hawaii Queen Liliuokalani
Spanish American War 1898-1900 • Cuba (for “freedom”?) • “Maine” incident, yellow journalism, jingoism & war fever • Rough Riders & Theodore Roosevelt • US acquires Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam
McKinley, T. Roosevelt & Taft • McKinley: Open Door Policy, S-A War • Roosevelt: Panama Canal, Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine, “Walk Softly and Carry a Big Stick” • Taft: Dollar Diplomacy (private funds to pursue diplomatic goals)
Philippine Revolution Cuba (Platt Amend) Latin American interventions (numerous) Balancing Japan’s growing dominance in Asia with US-Japanese economic ties Panama Canal Open Door: getting a toehold in China trade Pre-WWI Imperialism Focal Points
WWI: From Neutrality to Versailles • Traditional neutrality • Challenges to neutrality: u-boats, US business loans, munitions trade, propaganda, some pro-war advocates (ex: TR) • Wilson’s 1916 Pledge: To keep us out of war • Wilson’s 1917 statement to “make the world safe for democracy”. (2nd“crusade” for the US) RMS Lusitania
Wilson’s 14 Points & Versailles Treaty & the “Lessons of War” • 14 Points largely disregarded • Fight for Ratification of the Treaty • Henry Cabot Lodge and American Isolationists prevail-reject League of Nations • US returns to its “isolationist” position vis a vis Europe • “Lessons” of WWI, Red Scare & Peace Movement
YOUR VIEW: From 1890 to 1920, which goal did the U.S. put first? • 1. Preserve independence • 2. Maintain security for the nation • 3. Seek prosperity for the nation • 4. Seek revenge or prestige • 5. Spread ideals or ideas
DISCUSS: Can our national interest be in doing what is right for others? Peacekeepers from the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) load the injured onto a helicopter after the Jan 2010 devastating earthquake in Haiti. (UN Photo/Logan Abassi) http://www.un.org/en/rights/
Always consider: • What are our motives? • What are our goals? • What are the likely outcomes? *Short and Long Term*
YOUR VIEW: Which goal should be most important today? Why? • 1. Preserve independence • 2. Maintain security for the nation • 3. Seek prosperity for the nation • 4. Seek revenge or prestige • 5. Spread ideals or ideas
Sources: American Foreign Policy by Leonard James American Foreign Policy by Thomas Fitzgerald American Foreign Policy.ppt by Joyce Williams & Justin Hill, RCPS (h t t p://sp.rpcs.org/faculty/HillJ/ AP US History/ American Foreign Foreign Policy.pdf