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  1. SLAVERY Prepared by: AdileLleshanaku


  3. WHAT IS SLAVERY? • Slavery is a system under which people are treated as property to be bought and sold, and are forced to work Slaves can be held against their will from the time of their capture, purchase or birth, and deprived of the right to leave, to refuse to work, or to demand compensation. Historically the institution was called "slavery" and was accepted by societies; in more recent times slavery is not acceptable, but conditions tantamount to slavery although not called such continue, with debt bondage, indentured servitude, serfdom, domestic servants kept in captivity, adoption in which children are effectively forced to work as slaves, child soldiers, and forced marriage.

  4. Types of slavery. • Chattel slavery :Chattel slavery, so named because people are treated as the personal property, chattels, of an owner and are bought and sold as commodities, is the original form of slavery. It is the least prevalent form of slavery today. • Bonded labor :Debt bondage or bonded labor occurs when a person pledges themselves against a loan.The services required to repay the debt, and their duration, may be undefined. Debt bondage can be passed on from generation to generation, with children required to pay off their parents' debt. It is the most widespread form of slavery today.

  5. Human trafficking: is the illegal trade in human beings to work as slaves, in many cases providing sexual services. • Forced labor: is when an individual is forced to work against their will, under threat of violence or other punishment, with restrictions on their freedom.It is also used to describe all types of slavery and may also include institutions not commonly classified as slavery, such as serfdom, conscription and penal labor.

  6. When did slavery start? • Evidence of slavery predates written records, and has existed in many cultures. Prehistoric graves from about 8000 BC in Lower Egypt suggest that Libyan people enslaved people .Slavery is rare among hunter-gatherer populations, as slavery is a system of social stratification. Mass slavery also requires economic surpluses and a high population density to be viable. Due to these factors, the practice of slavery would have only proliferated after the invention of agriculture during the Neolithic Revolution about 11,000 years ago. • In the earliest known records slavery is treated as an established institution. The Code of Hammurabi (ca. 1760 BC), for example, stated that death was prescribed for anyone who helped a slave to escape, as well as for anyone who sheltered a fugitive. The Bible refers uncritically to slavery as an established institution.

  7. Height of Slave trade. “The Holocaust” • Muslim traders exported as many as 17 million slaves to the coast of the Indian Ocean, to the Middle East, and to North Africa. African slave exports via the Red Sea, trans-Sahara, and East Africa/Indian Ocean to other parts of the world between 1500-1900 totaled at least 5 million Africans sent into bondage. • Between 1450 and 1850, at least 12 million Africans were shipped from Africa across the Atlantic Ocean--the notorious Middle Passage"-- primarily to colonies in North America, South America, and the West Indies.. 80% of these kidnapped Africans (or at least 7 million) were exported during the 18th century, with a mortality rate of probably 10-20% on the ships enrooted for the Americas. • Unknown numbers (probably at least 4 million) of Africans died in slave wars and forced marches before being shipped. Within central Africa itself, the slave trade precipitated migrations: coastal tribes fled slave-raiding parties and captured slaves were redistributed to different regions in Africa. • African slave trade and slave labor transformed the world. In Africa, slave trade stimulated the expansion of powerful West African kingdoms. In the Islamic world, African slave labor on plantations, in seaports, and within families expanded the commerce and trade of the Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf. In the Americas, slave labor became the key component in trans-Atlantic agriculture and commerce supporting the booming capitalist economy of the 17th and 18th centuries, with the greatest demand in the Americas coming from Brazil and the sugar plantations of the Caribbean.

  8. How were slaves treated? It was a very hard life as a slave and very difficult to imagine now. Whole families would be taken from their homes in Africa against their will and moved in dreadful cramped, diseased conditions on ships. Many died during the voyage. The people would then be sold as slaves - separated from their family - and become the property of someone, just like you would own a bicycle or a car. They had no rights at all. This would mean they might have to change their name to that of their owner, and work really hard for up to 18 hours a day in terrible conditions. They had a poor diet and no care for their health, often walking for miles in the hot sun and living in rough huts and sleeping on a dirt floor. Masters would control their slaves by whipping them. Once a slave started work on a plantation they usually only lived for about seven years because they were worked so hard. If the plantation was run by a church they usually died after three years. Being a slave was a hard, miserable life.

  9. Finally “freedom”!!!!!! • On December 10, 1948, the UNITED NATION General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which declared freedom from slavery is an internationally recognized human right. Article 4 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: • “ No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.[181]

  10. Historical and modern forms of slavery • There's no longer a need for legal ownership; people can be bought, sold and bartered among "owners" who take temporary possession; • People caught up in slavery today can be purchased and sold for as little as $100 (compared to 10 times that much in the 1850s). As a result, people become "disposable;" i.e., easily replaceable. • Slavery cuts across nationality, race, ethnicity, gender, age, class, education-level, and other demographic features • Slavery's business side --- human trafficking --- is a global enterprise that can involve not just criminal gangs, but also corrupt law enforcement, drug dealers, and even families.

  11. Why does slavery still exist? • At its heart, slavery is an inhuman perversion of a simple economic principle: the best way to maximize profits is by minimizing the cost of labor. In today’s global economy, the seemingly inexhaustible demand for cheap goods and services has created a vast, largely invisible market for easily replenished supplies of men, women and children who are forced to work against their will, for little or no pay, and under constant threat of violence or intimidation.

  12. More slaves now than ever Today, 21st century slavery has changed a little from the past portrayal. The numbers and profits have increased, as well as the clandestine methods of human trafficking--moving victims from one location to another and still to another. According to the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation [FBI], human trafficking alone generates a staggering $9.5 billion in yearly revenues worldwide. The International Labor Office [ILO] estimates that figure to be $32 billion each year. Moreover, there are more slaves today than any other time in human history. Worldwide estimates are that 27 million men, women, and children, even babies, are in slavery today, at any given time, a number much greater than any other period in recorded history and exponentially growing.

  13. How does slavery affect us? • Modern day slavery affects us al.l In 1850 it was difficult to capture a slave and then transport him or her to the US. Today, millions of economically and socially vulnerable people around the world are potential slaves. This “supply” makes slaves today cheaper than they have ever been. The new slavery has two primary characteristics: slaves today are cheap and they are disposable.

  14.  Human beings can be bought for an average of $90, compared to the mid 19th century when slaves were worth around $40,000. Since they are so cheap, slaves today are not considered a major investment worth maintaining. If slaves get sick, are injured, outlive their usefulness, or become troublesome to the slaveholder, they are dumped or killed. For most slave holders, legally ‘owning’ the slave is an inconvenience since they already exert total control over the individuals labor and profits. Who needs a legal document that could at some point be used against the slave holder? Today the slave holder cares more about these high profits than whether the holder and slave are of different ethnic backgrounds; in New Slavery, profit trumps skin color

  15. Finally, new slavery is directly connected to the global economy. As in the past, most slaves are forced to work in agriculture, mining, and prostitution. From these sectors, their exploited labor flows into the global economy, and into our lives.

  16. To bring people to freedom and to end slavery, three things have to happen: • Public awareness has to grow, and there has to be public agreement that it is time to end slavery once and for all. This public commitment must be communicated to  politicians. • 2 Money needs to be spent to eradicate slavery, but not nearly as much as you might think. For the price of a bomber or a battleship, the amount of slavery in the world could be dramatically reduced. • Governments must enforce their own anti-slavery laws. To make this happen every country has to understand that they must take action or face serious pressure. We all know about the United Nations weapons inspectors, who enforce the Conventions against Weapons of Mass Destruction, but where are the United Nations Slavery Inspectors? When the same effort is put behind searching out and ending slavery, there will be rapid change.


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