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SSUSH8 The student will explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions and westward expansion.

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  1. SSUSH8 The student will explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions and westward expansion.

  2. a. Explain how slavery became a significant issue in American politics; include the slave rebellion of Nat Turner and the rise of abolitionism (William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, and the Grimke sisters).

  3. Slavery • Planters in the South depended on slaves to work their huge cotton fields. • Why would Southern politicians fight to keep slavery for the South? • However, in the North they had a more industrialized economy. • Most Northern states had already freed their slaves and outlawed slavery by the mid -1800s.

  4. Abolitionist Movement • Who was the person we talked about that was the main person behind the abolitionist movement? • Grimke Sisters- These sisters were members of a prominent slaveholding family in South Carolina who then became abolitionists and gained respect from their passionate anti-slavery speeches.

  5. Frederick Douglass • Escaped slavery in Maryland then taught himself and became the most prominent African American speaker for the abolitionist movement.

  6. Nat Turner • He was a preacher and thought that he had a divine mission to deliver his people from slavery. • Met secretly with slaves for over 4 months and then early one morning they went and killed every white person they could find.

  7. b. Explain the Missouri Compromise and the issue of slavery in western states and territories

  8. Missouri Compromise • This was the struggle of adding Missouri as a new state and whether or not it would be a slave or free state. • Why would the free states fear it being a slave state? • Finally the compromise said that the state would act as a dividing line and any state north of the line was free and any south was slave.

  9. c. Describe the Nullification Crisis and the emergence of states’ rights ideology; include the role of John C. Calhoun and development of sectionalism.

  10. Nullification Crisis • Nullification- The state has the right to nullify or invalidate any federal law. • Conflict between states’ rights and federal authority reached a boiling point in the early 1830s. • South Carolina began protesting high tariffs on British goods.

  11. John C. Calhoun • Wrote Exposition and Protest. • Calhoun’s argument was for states’ rights and his strong belief in the doctrine of nullification. • He claimed that any state that felt the laws were unconstitutional could refuse that law. • President Jackson was enraged and threatened to handle Calhoun and said he was prepared to call federal troops to make sure SC complied.

  12. Sectionalism • The regional differences between the North and South. • North called more on the national government to limit, or end slavery. • The South rallied around states’ rights, which made people like John C. Calhoun heroes.

  13. d. Describe the war with Mexico and the Wilmot Proviso.

  14. War with Mexico • Conflict between the United States and Mexico(1846-1848) following the annexation of Texas(1845) • The War lasted a year and a half and ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo which forced Mexico to give up modern day California and New Mexico for $15 million

  15. War with Mexico (cont) • The US also agreed to pay an additional $3.25 million for debts owed by Mexico to Americans • In addition, Mexico now recognized the Rio Grande as the border between Texas and Mexico

  16. Wilmot Proviso • David Wilmot, a Pennsylvania congressman, had ideas about what to do with any land the United States was sure to gain with a victory against Mexico in the Mexican-American War. • He introduced a proviso(condition) that said any land gained from Mexico would be free land

  17. Wilmot Proviso(cont) • Wilmot tried to tie his proviso in at the end of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, but was unsuccessful as it passed the House of Reps, but not the Senate • This contributed greatly to growing tensions in sectionalism between the North and South

  18. Compromise of 1850 • The battle between what to do with the territory gained from Mexico continued for several years, concluding with the Compromise of 1850 • The biggest part of this was California was added to the US as a free state (it was previously a territory)

  19. Compromise of 1850(comp) • Other provisions of the Compromise: • Slave trade abolished in Washington D.C. • Popular sovereignty used in New Mexico and Utah territories, meaning the people of those could vote on the issue of slavery • Tougher fugitive slave act which said that escaped slaves must be returned to their owners

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