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Slavery. Chapter 8 -Sectional Conflict Intensifies * The territory gained by the US in the Mexican-American War greatly increased sectional tension. Slavery & Westward Expansion. 1846 David Wilmot Penn.(Dem)
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Slavery Chapter 8 -Sectional Conflict Intensifies * The territory gained by the US in the Mexican-American War greatly increased sectional tension.
Slavery & Westward Expansion 1846David Wilmot Penn.(Dem) The Wilmot Proviso: proposed that slavery not be allowed in any territory gained from Mexico. Angered Southerners Northern Democrats & Whigs passed it in the House. Senate refused to vote on it (led by John C. Calhoun of SC)
Election of 1848** Two Political Parties were national parties** Both parties tended to “sit on the lid” of the slavery issue Democrats nominated Gen. Lewis Cass (veteran of 1812) –”father of popular sovereignty” Popular Sovereignty- allow the settlers who move to the territories to decide whether they want slavery or not (idea had lots of appeal) . Platform- silent on the issue of slavery in territories won from Mexico.
The Whigs • Nominated Gen. Zachary Taylor (Southerner& slave holder) • Platform- dodged all issues regarding slavery-talked about their candidate’s “homespun” appeal. • The Free Soil Party • organized by Conscience Whigs, anti-slavery Democrats; men in the North who did not trust Cass or Taylor on slavery. • Platform: supported the Wilmot Proviso- against slavery in territories because slaves might take white settler’s jobs. • Nominated- Martin Van Buren
Election 1848-Results Zachary Taylor won! Van Buren pulled votes from Cass in NY
Sectional Balance-South is well off • a Southerner in the Whitehouse (La. -slaveholder) • Southern majority on Supreme Court • Southerners can block in the US Senate • Cotton fields expanding & profitable • 15 free/ 15 slave states= veto any proposed amendment
Gold Discovered In California • 1848- Gold discovered near Sutter’s Mill on the American River= settlers & miners move west= (“Forty-Niners”). • 1849- enough people had moved to California = California applied for statehood as a free state (urged secretly by Taylor) & drafted a constitution that excluded slavery. • Southern “Fire-eaters” threatened to secede. Major gold strikes
The Senate Debates the Issue Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, & Daniel Webster appeared on national stage for last time. Henry Clay proposed a series of compromises & was helped by young Sen. Stephen Douglas (Ill.) John C. Calhoun (SC) – rejected Clay’s compromises because they did not protect southern rights or property. Leave slavery alone, return runaway slaves.
Seventh of March Speech Daniel Webster (68 yrs. Old)- liked Clay’s compromise; gave a 3 hour speech. Called Seventh of March Speech- urged concessions to the South (new Fugitive Slave Law), declared that God had already deemed much of the Mexican cession off limits to slavery-due to climate= no plantations.
**The Compromise of 1850: Pres. Taylor died & VP Millard Fillmore took over California in as a free state= tipped power in Senate permanently to the North New Mexico & Utah- slavery decided by popularsovereignty (both unsuited for cotton) Slave trade outlawed in D.C. but not slavery itself New Fugitive Slave Act- “Bloodhound Bill” Mistake by the South!!
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 Any African-American could be accused as a runaway slave to be taken into custody of the white person accusing him/her No trial Financial incentives ($10) for federal judges who found in favor of slave holders. Any northerner could be compelled to catch runaways or face jail or fines.
Effects of the Act Northerners upset – possible jail time Drove Northerners to acts of defiance (civil disobedience) Violence between abolitionists and pro-slavery advocates rose Abolitionists: Aided in the escape of slaves Sent anti-slavery mailings to the south
Henry David Thoreau Romantic Author Wrote ‘Civil Disobedience’ People should break a law if it is unjust Anti-slavery activists used this essay to justify defying the Fugitive Slave Acts
The Underground Railroad Escape routes for slaves Deepened Southern mistrust of Northerners Safe houses aided runaway slaves Began in the 1830s Members were ‘conductors’ Harriett Tubman – most famous conductor Called Moses for leading her people to freedom Used song to give directions Levi Coffin –white man provided a safe house 3 underground railroads converged at his house
Harriet Beecher Stowe Uncle Tom’s Cabin Book about slave life Changed Northerner’s perceptions of slavery Sold millions of copies Southerners tried to ban the book
Frederick Douglass Former slave who escaped Powerful orator Abolitionist Gave speeches to anti-slavery groups in the North Urged to enlist black troops