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Argument

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Argument

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  1. Learning through internship: implications for Work-based Programmes in Higher EducationProfessor David Guile

  2. Argument Internship demonised in UK • un-paid/unsupervised work or work experience Demonisation conflates • internship with un-paid/unsupervised work/work experience   Historically internship • process facilitating formation of expertise   In light of this, it is important to: • understand why demonisation has occurred • identify models of internship that facilitate skill formation • identify their conceptual & policy implications

  3. Internship- divided views Bad • illegal (IPPR) • finishing school for middle class (Williams) • form of exploitation (de Grunwald) • favour well off (Clegg) Good • way into job market (Willetts) • more positions in big firms going to people who have done internships (High Fliers) The biggest UK firms are set to increase their graduate intake this year, with more positions than ever going to people who have already worked for the company as interns, research has shown (Higher Fliers, 2011)

  4. Why do these different views exist? • Reporting of internship: • clashes with people’s sense of fair play • But there is another reason why people are vexed: • legacy of traditional model of recruitment • Legacy leads people to think: • internship is distorting recruitment process • generating unfair outcomes Reporting of internship: • clashes with people’s sense of ‘fair play’ But, there is another hitherto unidentified reason why people are vexed: • legacy of the traditional linear model of recruitment in people’s minds This legacy leads people to: • assume internship is distorting recruitment process • generating unfair outcomes • Element of know how associated with know that expertise (ability tocommunicate)

  5. Research on internship (Guile & Lahiff) Two sectors: • Creative & Finance (banking & professional service companies) • Differences • very different mix of large & small companies • Similarities • both sectors use ‘projects/project teams’ as organising principle for work (Grabher) • project teams tend to be interprofessional

  6. Internship: company strategy to develop expertise • Many companies have: • extended recruitment process beyond interview to see people in action • Those companies use internship to: • enculturate successful students into workplace culture so they start ‘ahead of curve’ when join • Two types of project teams: • interprofessional teams working with clients (semi-open) • Interprofessional teams working for clients (open)

  7. Internship as strategy to develop expertise: working for clients Characteristic of Semi-open IPTS: • working on contract from client (‘arms-length relationship evaluated by outcomes) • Opportunities in semi-open teams to: • use T/T/T or R/D/A processes to manage/create knowledge in team • participate in/observe how team use mix of expertise to address client’s needs • receive feedback from team leader re. client’s view of team’s performance

  8. Interns' Learning in Semi-Open Interprofessional Project Team

  9. Learning from working for clients in Semi-openIPTa Learning through internship by: • using individual & collective activity to see own in relation to other’s contributions • using allocated & negotiated contributions to contribute to T/T/T or D/R/A processes • seeing how team use feedback to resolve jurisdictional disputes to make progress • seeing how team use team leader’s feedback from client(s) to influence next phase of work

  10. Internship as strategy to develop expertise: working for clients Characteristics of OIPT: • working with continuous feedback from client • Opportunities in open teams to: • use T/T/T or R/D/A processes to manage/create knowledge in team & with client • participate in/observe how team use mix of expertise to address client’s needs • receive feedback from client & team leader re. progress towards renegotiated outcome

  11. Interns' Learning in Open Interprofessional Project Team

  12. Learning from working with clients in Open IPTs Learning through internship by: • using individual & collective activity to see own in relation to other’s contributions • using allocated & negotiated contributions to contribute to T/T/T or D/R/A processes • seeing how team use virtual & face-to-face feedback to resolve jurisdictional disputes • seeing how team use continuous feedback from client(s)/one another to shape next phase of work

  13. Outcomes from internship Interns develop sector-specific: • knowledge, skill & judgement (how to use expertise in relational & distributed contexts) • entrepreneurialism (how to contribute to retaining/securing contracts) • social capital (how to use networks to retain contracts etc.) Extent of development influenced by: • engage with/allocation of routine/novel contributions • degree of openness/closure of project team • degree of exposure to feedback from clients

  14. Higher Education (HE) Work-based Programmes: diverse lexicon Work placement/experience/sandwich • compulsory period of time spent at work during degree (BIS/ASET) Work-based learning • degrees based on experience of work (Costely) Approach adopted: • work placement & work-based learning

  15. Typology of work placements

  16. Typology of Work-based Learning & WP’s accessed through Careers Services

  17. Conclusions: Expertise Rethinking expertise: • reveals limitation of novice-to-expert (N-t-E)notion • important to dislodge/replace notion because lies behind HE Work-based programmes/professional education etc. and perpetuates classic conception of expertise • further conceptual work needed

  18. Additionality of internship Internships contribute to: • development of expertise Work Placements/WbL have a dual agenda: • material for degrees & employability skills Difference in outcome: • indicates additional internships offer rather than critique of HE

  19. Strategy for policymakers • ‘Relational’ strategy’ • create a framework that identifies contribution HE & internship make to development of expertise • illustrate sectoral-specificity of framework with case studies highlighting role of pedagogy in workplace in facilitating development of expertise • use framework & case studies to also distinguish similarities & differences between internship & Higher Apprenticeships