Contents • Definition • The Rational Appeal • The Emotional Appeal • The Ethical Appeal • Ferreting Out Fallacies • Ethical Issues • Writing an Argument
a paper, grounded on logical, structured evidence, that attempts to convince the reader to accept an opinion, take some action, or do both. Argument is..
The Rational Appeal • Established Truths • Opinions of Authorities • Primary Source Information • Statistical findings • Personal Experience • Induction / Deduction • Analogy in Argument
1. Established Truths • Established truths are not arguable themselves • but do provide strong back up for argumentative • Propositions. For example, 1. The first Amendment to the United States Constitution Prohibits Congress from abridging freedom of the press. 2. Citing the abundant coal supply in the western regions could supply its energy needs.
2. Opinions of Authorities • An authority is a recognized expert in some field. • Authoritative opinions play a powerful role in winning • readers over to your side. For example, 1. The views of metropolitan police chiefs and criminologists could support your position on ways to control urban crime. 2. Researchers who have investigated the effects of air Pollution could help you argue for stricter smog control laws.
3. Primary Source Information • Documents or other materials produced by individuals • directly involved with the issue or conclusions . • For example, • To convince readers to adopt your solution for the • homeless problem, you might want to visit • a homeless shelter or interview some homeless people.
4. Statistical Findings • Statistics – data showing how much, how many, or • how often – can also buttress your argument. • Most statistics come from books, magazines, • newspapers, Handbook, encyclopedias, reports, • and your own investigations. • If you make your own investigations, • The sample isn’t too small. • Take general case that people understand. • Take enough time .
5. Personal Experience • Personal experience can deliver an argumentative • message forcefully.
6. Induction / Deduction • Induction moves from separate bits of evidence to • a general observation. • Deduction is the reverse of induction. • By induction, to prove something, every bit of evidence • must be checked. • By deduction, instead of formulating a conclusion, you start • with an observation that most people accept as true
7. Analogy in Argument • An analogy compares two unlike situations or things • For an analogy to be useful, it must feature significant • similarities that bare directly on the issue. • In addition, it must account for any significant differences • between the two items.
The Emotional Appeal • Emotional appeal can lend powerful reinforcement. • Emotion can win the hearts. For example, Politicians paint themselves as God-fearing, honest toilers for the public good while lambasting their opponents as the uncaring tools of special interests.
The Ethical Appeal • The writer’s attitude makes the audience to consider • the argument. • For example, • If a writer comes across as pleasant, fair-minded, • and decent, gaining reader support is much easier. • But If the writer’s tone offends the audience, the • reasoning will fail to penetrate.
The Ferreting Out Fallacies • Hasty Generalization • Non Sequitur • Stereotyping • Card Stacking • Either / or Fallacy • Begging the Question • Circular Argument • Arguing off the Point • The Argument Ad Hominem • Appeal to the Crowd • Guilt by Association • Post Hoc, ergo Propter Hoc • Faulty Analogy
Ethical Issues • The argument’s objectives create an ethical responsibility • for both quality and the possible consequences. • Think of next to avoid any breach of ethics • Have I carefully considered the issue I’m arguing and the stance • I’m talking? • 2. Am I fair to other positions on the issue? • 3. Are my reasons and evidence legitimate? • 4. Do I use fallacies or other types of faulty thinking to manipulate • the reader unfairly? • 5. What consequences could follow if readers adopt my position?
Writing an Argument • Planning and Drafting the argument. • Investigate the various positions. • How substantial is the evidence? • If the evidence includes statistics and authoritative opinions, • are they reliable? • 3. What are the objections to each position, and how can they • be countered? • 4. If the issue involves taking some action, what might be its • consequences?
Revising the Argument. • Consider when you revise your arguments: • Is my topic controversial? Have I examined all of the main positions? • Is the paper aimed at the audience I want to reach? • Is my evidence sound, adequate, and appropriate to the argument? • If I’ve used analogy, are my points of comparison pertinent to the • issue? • 5. If I’ve included an emotional appeal, does it center on those emotions • most likely to sway the reader? • 6. Have I made a conscious effort to present myself in a favorable light? • 7. Is my evidence effectively structured? • 8. Have I considered appropriate ethical issues?
In Conclusion. • You need to aware that certain kinds of topics • just aren’t arguable. • 2. You don’t simply sit down and dash off your views. • a. Argument represents and opportunity to think • things through, to gradually, and tentatively, • come to some conclusions. • b. You begin to draft your position with the support • you have discovered. • c. Keep open mind as your formulate.