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Argument

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Argument

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  1. Argument Stephen Toulmin, originally a British logician. He became frustrated with the inability of formal logic to explain everyday arguments, which prompted him to develop his own model of practical reasoning.

  2. Example of Argument A: I should choose the ice cream today! Q: Why do you say that? A: Jack chose yesterday, and Jill the day before. Q: So? A: Everyone should have a turn at choosing. Toulmin, S. E., Rieke, R. D., & Janik, A. (1984). An Introduction to reasoning. New York [etc.]: Macmillan.

  3. Example of Argument Claim Grounds (because) I should choose the ice cream today! Jack chose yesterday, and Jill the day before. Warrant (since) Everyone should have a turn at choosing. Toulmin, S. E., Rieke, R. D., & Janik, A. (1984). An Introduction to reasoning. New York [etc.]: Macmillan.

  4. Principle or Category Claim Grounds (because) We should support genetically modified foods. Doing so values scientific reason over emotion. Warrant (since) Reason is superior to emotion. Toulmin, S. E., Rieke, R. D., & Janik, A. (1984). An Introduction to reasoning. New York [etc.]: Macmillan.

  5. Show how your proposed action follows a principle valued by your audience or belongs to a category valued by your audience. “Because doing this action is ________” • What might be the objection of someone who doesn’t hold this value? (be very specific!) • How might you anticipate/address the argument of that stakeholder?

  6. Consequences Claim Grounds (because) We should support genetically modified foods. Biotech crops can reduce world hunger. Warrant (since) Hunger is something humans shouldn’t have to experience (i.e., everyone agrees about “goodness” of reason/grounds). Toulmin, S. E., Rieke, R. D., & Janik, A. (1984). An Introduction to reasoning. New York [etc.]: Macmillan.

  7. Show how your proposed action will lead to consequences valued by your audience. • What might be the objection of someone who doesn’t agree that your proposed action will result in the consequences you predict? (be very specific!) • How might you anticipate/address the argument of that stakeholder?

  8. Resemblance Claim Grounds (because) We should support genetically modified foods. Genetic modification is like natural crossbreeding that has been accelerated. Warrant (since) Faster is better. Analogies generally hold. Toulmin, S. E., Rieke, R. D., & Janik, A. (1984). An Introduction to reasoning. New York [etc.]: Macmillan.

  9. Show how your proposed action has been done successfully elsewhere or is like another action valued by your audience. • What might be the objection of someone who doesn’t buy your analogy? (be very specific!) • How might you anticipate/address the argument of that stakeholder?