Rocks, Rock! Mineral and Rock Vocabulary
Rock • Rock is a solid mixture of crystals of one or more minerals • Rocks are categorized into 3 types on how they are made • Each rock in each category is classified (named) by its TEXTURE and COMPOSITION
Igneous Rock • Definition: Igneous rock is rock formed when magma cools and solidifies into rock. (Rock from Volcanoes) • Extrusive vs. Intrusive • Intrusive Rock- When magma cools slowly under the earths surface- causing large grained rocks • Extrusive Rock- when magma erupts from a volcano it is called lava, lava cools quickly causing fine (small) grained rocks • Felsic vs. Mafic • MAFIC: Low silicon level rocks which are dark colored rocks • FELSIC: High silicon level rocks which are light colored rocks
Igneous Rock Examples- special features Felsic- Mafic Extrusive Grain size-formed outside quickly Pumice Obsidian Basalt Intrusive Grain Size-formed inside slowly Granite Gabbro
Review Time • Turn to your neighbor and explain to him/her what igneous rock is, and what the 4 types of igneous rock are. • How are rocks grouped (3 ways)
Quiz Time • Which of the following best describes this rock • A Extrusive Mafic • B Intrusive Mafic • C Extrusive Felsic • D Intrusive Felsic
Sedimentary Rock • Definition: Rocks that form when sediments are compacted and cemented together • Sediments are small fragments of rock –like sand • Rocks must go through several steps before they become sedimentary • Weathering • Erosion • Deposition • Compaction and Cementation aka lithification
Sedimentary Rock Examples and special features Clastic- rock fragments Organic- Made from shells, skeletons, fossils and minerals Chemical- minerals and water Conglomerate- large fragments Fossiliferous limestone Chemical limestone Sandstone medium sediment
Quiz Time • What is the best description of this rock? • A Clastic Sandstone • B Clastic Conglomerate • C Organic fossiliferouslimestone • D igneous rock
Review Time • Turn to your neighbor and tell them the difference between sedimentary and igneous rock.
Metamorphic Rock • Definition: Rock that forms when the texture and composition of preexisting rock changes due to heat or pressure.
Fast Five Quiz • Go as quickly, and as safely as you can to the right corner. The following words are associated with what kind of rock? • A Sedimentary Rock • B Metamorphic Rock • C Igneous (Extrusive) • D Igneous (Intrusive)
Energy and the Changing earth • We talked about how energy changes in food pyramids and food webs, and how that affects living organisms. Refresh: ___________ _____________________________ • now lets talk about energy and how earth’s rocks are affected- what is chemical/mechanical energy?
Decision Time • Where and how can you see chemical/mechanical energy in this new system? • Now that you have seen some examples of rocks, and you have seen the rock cycle. If you wanted to build a strong, long lasting monument to yourself for the world to see what type of rock would you use and why?
Weathering • Definition: breakdown of rock into smaller and smaller fragments.
Mechanical Weathering • Mechanical weathering: The breakdown of rocks by physical means- by ice, wind, water force, gravity, abrasion
Chemical Weathering • Chemical weathering: the breakdown of rocks by chemical means into new substances- by soil, water, weak acids,
Erosion • The removal and transport of sediment and material by wind, water or ice (glaciers)
Deposition • Definition: Depositing sediments, or the laying down of sediments from movement.
Compaction and Cementation • Definition: The squeezing and solidifying (gluing) of sediments together to finally become rock.