Learning Objectives • To have knowledge of the Red Army. • To have knowledge of the White Army. • To understand what the difference was between the White Army and the Red Army. • To understand what Red Terror was. • To know about the role of the Cheka.
Success Criteria • To have gone over the questions you were working on last week. • To have worked in a group to produce a poster on a key group or key element of the early stages of the civil war. • To have helped your group present back your findings to the rest of the class. • To have a series of notes in your jotter on a key group or key element of the early stages of the civil war.
“We will turn our hearts into steel, which we will temper in the fire of suffering and the blood of fighters for freedom. We will make our hearts cruel, hard, and immovable, so that no mercy will enter them, and so that they will not quiver at the sight of a sea of enemy blood. We will let loose the floodgates of that sea. Without mercy, without sparing, we will kill our enemies in scores of hundreds. Let them be thousands; let them drown themselves in their own blood. For the blood of Lenin and Uritsky, Zinovief and Volodarski, let there be floods of the blood of the bourgeois - more blood, as much as possible.”
Background The Civil War can be said to have started immediately after Lenin declared that the Bolsheviks had taken power on the 26th October 1917. This is because not everybody in Russia supported the Bolsheviks in their take over. In fact, the peasants wanted the Social Revolutionaries in power. Even Kerensky was determined to oppose them. It took the Bolsheviks 4 years of terrible civil war to extend their control over the entirety of Russia.
Today, you will be concerned with establishing the key players and events of the early stages of the Civil War. You have already looked at this in the questions you were answering using the textbooks. Today, you are going to work in groups to gain more information on each of these.
Group Work • You will be working in groups of approximately 5. • Each group will get a list of key questions and background information. • Each group should work together to produce a poster on their topic that answers all of the key questions.
Group Work Continued… • Red Guards • Red Army • White Army • The Cheka • Red Terror You have 15 minutes!
Red Guards Role before the Civil War Positive reactions to the Red Guards Criticisms levelled at the Red Guards
Red Army When established Appointed head of the Red Army When and why conscription was introduced. Inspiration of Trotsky Ensuring the loyalty of the Red Army Justification of the use of Terror Disobeying Orders
Red Terror Head of the Cheka Events/tactics of Red Terror Typical Execution Mood in Russia
The Cheka Official title of the Cheka Leader of the Cheka Description of the leader of the Cheka Effect of the Cheka on the people of Russia Estimated victims of the Cheka Usual victims of the Cheka Justification of executions
The White Army Kerensky’s actions Role of General Lavr Kornilov Typical White Army recruits Countries supporting the White Army Effects of conscription in the Red Army Threat of the Whites in 1919
Success Criteria Revisited • To have gone over the questions you were working on last week. • To have worked in a group to produce a poster on a key group or key element of the early stages of the civil war. • To have helped your group present back your findings to the rest of the class. • To have a series of notes in your jotter on a key group or key element of the early stages of the civil war.