Chapter 6 The Fertility Transition
Chapter Outline • What Is Fertility? • Measuring Fertility • The Preconditions For A Decline In Fertility • How Can Fertility Be Controlled? • Proximate Determinants Of Fertility
Chapter Outline • Explanations For High Fertility • Motivations For Lower Fertility Levels • How Is The Fertility Transition Accomplished? • Case Studies In The Fertility Transition
Fertility Transition • Shift from high fertility, with minimal individual control, to low fertility, which is entirely under a woman’s control. • Involves a delay in childbearing and an earlier end to childbearing. • Frees women and men from unwanted parenthood and allows them to space their children.
Number of Births Possible Average woman could bear a child every 2.2 years - potential of 16 children per woman • A woman can bear a child between the ages of 15 and 49. • Each pregnancy lasts a little less than nine months. • There’s an average of 18 months between the end of one pregnancy and the beginning of the next.
Number of Births Possible • Why 16 children per woman is not likely: • Pregnancy is dangerous - many women would die before delivering their 16th child. • Pregnancy requires good nutrition and health care.
Period Measures of Fertility • Commonly used in population studies, includes: • Crude birth rate • General fertility rate • Child-woman ratio • Age-specific fertility rate • Total fertility rate • Gross reproduction rate • Net reproduction rate
Preconditions for a Substantial Fertility Decline • Acceptance of calculated choice as a valid element in marital fertility. • Perception of advantages from reduced fertility. • Knowledge and mastery of effective techniques of control.
Dealing with Unwanted Children • Infanticide, or general neglect or inattention that leads to early death. • Fosterage of child by another family that needs or can afford it. • Orphanage - involves abandoning a child so she or he is likely to be found and cared for by strangers.
Intermediate Variables - Social Factors Influence on Fertility • Exposure to intercourse. • Formation and dissolution of unions. • Age of entry into sexual unions. • Permanent celibacy. • Amount of reproductive period spent after or between unions. • Unions broken by divorce, separation, or desertion. • Unions broken by death.
Intermediate Variables - Social Factors Influence on Fertility • Exposure to intercourse within unions. • Voluntary abstinence. • Involuntary abstinence (from impotence, illness, unavoidable but temporary separations). • Coital frequency (excluding periods of abstinence).
Intermediate Variables - Social Factors Influence on Fertility • Exposure to conception. • Fecundity or infecundity, as affected by involuntary causes, including breast-feeding. • Use or nonuse of contraception. • By mechanical and chemical means. • By other means. • Fecundity or infecundity as affected by voluntary causes (sterilization, medical treatment).
Intermediate Variables - Social Factors Influence on Fertility • Factors affecting gestation and successful parturition. • Fetal mortality from involuntary causes (miscarriage). • Fetal mortality from voluntary causes (induced abortion).