chapter 6 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 6 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 6

Loading in 2 Seconds...

  share
play fullscreen
1 / 34
Download Presentation

Chapter 6 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

cloris
297 Views
Download Presentation

Chapter 6

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 6 The Fertility Transition

  2. Chapter Outline • What Is Fertility? • Measuring Fertility • The Preconditions For A Decline In Fertility • How Can Fertility Be Controlled? • Proximate Determinants Of Fertility

  3. Chapter Outline • Explanations For High Fertility • Motivations For Lower Fertility Levels • How Is The Fertility Transition Accomplished? • Case Studies In The Fertility Transition

  4. Fertility Transition • Shift from high fertility, with minimal individual control, to low fertility, which is entirely under a woman’s control. • Involves a delay in childbearing and an earlier end to childbearing. • Frees women and men from unwanted parenthood and allows them to space their children.

  5. Number of Births Possible Average woman could bear a child every 2.2 years - potential of 16 children per woman • A woman can bear a child between the ages of 15 and 49. • Each pregnancy lasts a little less than nine months. • There’s an average of 18 months between the end of one pregnancy and the beginning of the next.

  6. Number of Births Possible • Why 16 children per woman is not likely: • Pregnancy is dangerous - many women would die before delivering their 16th child. • Pregnancy requires good nutrition and health care.

  7. Hutterite Fertility

  8. Period Measures of Fertility • Commonly used in population studies, includes: • Crude birth rate • General fertility rate • Child-woman ratio • Age-specific fertility rate • Total fertility rate • Gross reproduction rate • Net reproduction rate

  9. Preconditions for a Substantial Fertility Decline • Acceptance of calculated choice as a valid element in marital fertility. • Perception of advantages from reduced fertility. • Knowledge and mastery of effective techniques of control.

  10. Dealing with Unwanted Children • Infanticide, or general neglect or inattention that leads to early death. • Fosterage of child by another family that needs or can afford it. • Orphanage - involves abandoning a child so she or he is likely to be found and cared for by strangers.

  11. Intermediate Variables - Social Factors Influence on Fertility • Exposure to intercourse. • Formation and dissolution of unions. • Age of entry into sexual unions. • Permanent celibacy. • Amount of reproductive period spent after or between unions. • Unions broken by divorce, separation, or desertion. • Unions broken by death.

  12. Intermediate Variables - Social Factors Influence on Fertility • Exposure to intercourse within unions. • Voluntary abstinence. • Involuntary abstinence (from impotence, illness, unavoidable but temporary separations). • Coital frequency (excluding periods of abstinence).

  13. Intermediate Variables - Social Factors Influence on Fertility • Exposure to conception. • Fecundity or infecundity, as affected by involuntary causes, including breast-feeding. • Use or nonuse of contraception. • By mechanical and chemical means. • By other means. • Fecundity or infecundity as affected by voluntary causes (sterilization, medical treatment).

  14. Intermediate Variables - Social Factors Influence on Fertility • Factors affecting gestation and successful parturition. • Fetal mortality from involuntary causes (miscarriage). • Fetal mortality from voluntary causes (induced abortion).

  15. Contraceptive Methods

  16. Contraceptive Methods

  17. Contraceptive Methods

  18. Fertility Control: Women in the U.S.

  19. Fertility Control: Women in the U.S.

  20. Fertility Control: Women in the U.S.

  21. Contraceptive Effectiveness

  22. Contraceptive Effectiveness

  23. Contraceptive Effectiveness

  24. Abortion Rates Throughout the World

  25. Abortion Rates Throughout the World

  26. Abortion Rates Throughout the World

  27. Abortion Rates Throughout the World

  28. Contraceptive Use and Fertility

  29. Education of Women and the Fertility Transition

  30. Changes in ASFRs in Context of the Fertility Transition

  31. Fertility Transition in England

  32. Fertility Transition in China

  33. Baby Boom, Baby Bust, and Baby Boomlet, U.S.

  34. Fertility by Ethnic Group, U.S.