Mock feedback November 2011 L/O: To feedback to practice exam for attachment & research methods
Look at your papers and mark • At the top of the paper please write and complete the following SMART target • I am .............................................. about the mark I gained (happy/ sad/ pleased/surprised/ disappointed etc) • To improve this mark I need to .......................................... (Revise / listen more in class/ research into ideas set in class further / complete h/w to a better stardard etc)
Question 5a • Attachment is a strong, enduring, emotional and reciprocal bond between two people, especially an infant and caregiver. • 1 mark for a brief definition, eg an emotional bond. • 1 further mark for some elaboration as above.
Question 6a • The sampling techniques: random, opportunity and volunteer. Any of these would be correct. • One mark for correct identification of a sampling technique or for a brief explanation, egrandom sample or names in a hat. Two further marks for elaboration, eg random sample – put the names of all the children into a hat. Pull out the names of some of the children.
Question 6c • One mark for a question which would produce quantitative data, but is not clearly operationalisedand appropriate, eg How many times was your child sociable in the last week? • Two marks for an appropriate question with some evidence of operationalisation, e.g. How many times was your child sociable in the last week? 0 – 5, 6-10, 11 -15 • Or Does your child enjoy birthday parties? Yes/No.
Question 6d • One mark for a question which would produce qualitative data, but is not appropriate, eg What do you do at work? • Two marks for an appropriate question, eg How sociable is your child? • Any questions that produce categories including yes/no answers would not be creditworthy. • Example: Give a description of how your child responded to you after their first day at play school/ child minders etc.
Question 6e • Candidates are likely to focus on social desirability, but any relevant weakness is acceptable. • One mark for a brief answer, eg the mothers may lie. • Second mark for some elaboration, eg the mothers may try to present their child in a positive light and may lie on sensitive issues such as aggression.
Question 7b • 2 differences identified and explained to gain 4 marks
Question 8 • AO1 = 6 marks Outline of one or more explanations of attachment. • AO2 = 6 marks Evaluation of the explanations • Learning theory and/or Bowlby’s evolutionary or social learning theory. Explanations must be explicitly linked to attachment. General descriptions of classical or operant conditioning are not creditworthy unless they are explicitly linked to attachment. • Learning theory of attachment suggests attachment develops through classical and operant conditioning processes. According to classical conditioning food (UCS) produces pleasure (UCR). The mother becomes associated with the pleasure and becomes a conditioned stimulus. According to operant conditioning food satisfies the infant’s hunger and makes it feel comfortable again (drive reduction). Food is therefore a primary reinforcer. The mother is associated with food and becomes a secondary reinforcer. The infant becomes attached to the mother because she is a source of reward (operant conditioning).
Bowby’s theory of attachment suggests attachment is important for survival. Infants are innately programmed to form an attachment. This is a biological process and takes place during a critical period. The role of social releasers is emphasised. The child’s relationship with a PCG provides an internal working model which influences later relationships. • Evaluation of learning theory could include reference to research studies such as Shaffer and Emerson who found that less than half of infants had a primary attachment to the person who usually fed them. Ross et al. – correlation with nappy changes and attchementResponsiveness appeared to be the key to attachment. Harlow’s research suggesting the importance of contact comfort rather than food could also be made relevant. • Evaluation of Bowlby’s explanation could relate to criticism of the critical period and monotropy or working model. • Candidates might refer to imprinting and the problems of generalising from birds to humans. Lorenz. • However, positive references to the importance of Bowlby’s work would be equally relevant. • Genuine comparison/contrast between different explanations could also be credited as evaluation.
To consolidate attachment theoriesfor future revision • Complete the worksheet to consolidate Bowlby’s attachment and the social learning theory • to consolidate theories on attachment.docx • We are going to rewrite the 12 mark question after the work sheet