States of Matter Matter and Energy Section 1.4
I. States of Matter • The four familiar states of matter are solid, liquid, gas and plasma. • When a substance changes from one state to another, the molecules in the substance do not change. • However the arrangement of molecules does change giving each state of matter its own characteristics.
A. Solid • Has a definitevolume and a definiteshape. • Particles are close together and form a regular pattern. • Particles vibrate in place.
4. Particles of a solid Sketch this diagram. solid
B. Liquid • Has a definitevolume, but indefiniteshape. • Usually takes the shape of the container it is in. • Particles move by sliding past each other.
4. Particles of a liquid Sketch this diagram. liquid liquid solid
C. Gas • Has indefinite volume and indefinite shape. • Particles not close together and movequickly from one place to another.
3. Particles of a Gas Sketch this diagram.
Gas Behavior • Gas molecules are always in motion, continually hitting each other and applying pressure to the sides of any container they are in. • As in a bicycle tire, the more molecules are put in, the harder the outside of the tire becomes. • The speed at which gas molecules move depends on the temperature: higher temperature molecules move faster.
D. Plasma • Plasma is actually the most common form of matter – 99% of all visible matter in the universe. In a plasma, a significant number of electrons have such high energy levels that no nucleus can hold them.
3. Plasma in the universe Horsehead nebula Plasma in the Sun Orion Nebula
Which two characteristics determine the state of matter? The arrangement and the motion of particles
Which state of matter has particles that are generally close together? Solid
Which state of matter has particles that can slide past each other but cannot move freely in any direction? Liquid