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Chapter 6 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 6

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  1. Chapter 6 Transport to and from cells

  2. Functions of blood • Transport of oxygen and nutrients to all cells • Transport of carbon dioxide and wastes away from cells • Transport of hormones • Maintaining the pH of body fluids • Maintain water content and ion concentration • Protection against disease causing pathogens

  3. Blood components • Liquid part is plasma • ____ blood volume • Non-liquid parts called formed elements • ____ blood volume • Cells (e__________, l________, p________ or t______________) • Cell fragments

  4. Mnemonic for Leucocytes Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas N___________ L___________ M__________ E___________ B___________

  5. Erythrocytes • Contain H_____________ • No nucleus • allow room for haemoglobin • Biconcave shape _________ surface area • Shortens life span of RBC

  6. Transport of Oxygen • Oxygen carried as • 3% in solution in plasma • 97% as ______________ • Loosely combined • Released by diffusion into tissue fluid and then into cells

  7. Transport of carbon dioxide • 7-8% dissolved in solution in ________ • 22% C____________________ • 70% in plasma as _________________ (HCO3-) • Combines with water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3)

  8. Transport of nutrients and waste Organic nutrients • Inorganic nutrients

  9. Wastes • Metabolic wastes are substances that cannot be used by cells and that, if allowed to accumulate, could be harmful (Name 3 wastes) • Nutrients and wastes transported in plasma

  10. Heart • Double pump • Systemic circulation takes blood out to ______ • Pulmonary circulation takes blood out to _______ • Surrounded by pericardium • Holds heart in place • Prevents ______________ • Cardiac muscle • Does not tire

  11. Blood vessels • Arteries • Carry blood _____________________ • Arterioles • Divisions of arteries, smaller • Capillaries • ____________________________ • Venules • Divisions of veins, smaller • Veins • Carry blood______________________

  12. Arteries • Smooth muscles, elastic • Must carry blood under _____ pressure • Walls able to _______ and recoil • Vaso_____________, vaso_______________

  13. Capillaries • Microscopic • Slow blood flow to allow for ____________ • Capillary walls one cell thick

  14. Veins • No ability to change their diameter • Contain _________ to assist in movement of blood back up to the heart • Muscles help push blood back ______ to the heart • _____________ pressure

  15. Artery – arteriole – capillary – venule - vein

  16. Blood vessels

  17. Blood flow through the heart • Blood moves around the ________to organs, delivering oxygen to them. • Blood enters the _____________. • Blood passes from the left atrium through the ________________________ (BICUSPID) to the ____________________ • Blood passes from the right atrium through the _____________________(TRICUSPID) to the ____________________ • Blood moves from the right ventricle, through the __________________, into the _________________.

  18. Blood flow through the heart • Blood move from artery to smaller arteries, to arterioles, to capillaries in the _________, where it is oxygenated. • Blood moves from pulmonary vein to ______________. • Blood moves from capillaries in the lung to venules, then veins, into the larger _________________________. • Blood returns to the body in the ___________. • Blood from the body enters the heart from the ___________________(from the upper body) and __________________(from the lower body). Both vena cava are veins. 

  19. Cardiac cycle • Heartbeat is the sequence of events that occur in one complete beat of the heart • Pumping phase is called ___________ • Filling phase is called _________ • Both atria and ventricles contract at the same time • Cardiac cycle

  20. Cardiac output • Heart rate is the ________________ per minute • Stroke volume is the ___________________ _________________________________ (mL) • Cardiac output is the __________________ __________________________________(mL) • Blood flow is _________________________ ______________________________(mL/min) Cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate

  21. How the heart beats • Sino-atrial (SA) node • Wall of the _____ atrium • Initiates _____ beat • Acts as a _____maker • Collection of _______ cells • Increased/Decreased by cardiac centre in brain