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Properties and classification of matter

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  1. Properties and classification of matter

  2. What is matter?

  3. All matter is composed of particles (atoms, ions or molecules).

  4. 6 • We will be studying states of matter: • solids • liquids • gases • There is also plasma, liquid crystal and Bose-Einstein condensates

  5. Mass – the quantity of particles in a substance - mesured in kg or pounds –the quantity of space occupied by a substance - mesured in cm3 or mL Volume Solids Liquids

  6. SOLIDS • The particles are very close together • There is a high force of attraction between the particles

  7. SOLIDS • Possess a definedmass (does not change) Possess a definedform (does not change)

  8. SOLIDS • The particles don’t spread out in a container • Cannot be invisible The particles don’t move around, but they can vibrate. The force of gravity is always pushing on the particles.

  9. LIQUIDS • The particles are close together, but there is space between them. The force of attraction between the particles is less than that of solids. The particles can easily move around.

  10. LIQUIDS • Possess a defined mass Possess a defined volume

  11. LIQUIDS • The particles spread out in a container (they take the container’s form, so their form is indefinite). • Cannot be invisible Particles can move easily

  12. GASES • The particles are very spread out. • Possess an undefined volume. The force of attraction is very small, as is the force of gravity.

  13. GASES • Possess an undefinedmass (as the particles are always moving) Possess an undefinedform (take the form of their container) ???

  14. GASES • The particles spread out in a container (take its form) • Can be invisible The particles can easily move around

  15. Review: Solids • Mass? • Volume? • Form? • Attraction? • Particles? • Invisible? • Take the form of the container? defined defined defined high close together no no

  16. Review: Liquids defined • Mass? • Volume? • Form? • Attraction? • Particles? • Invisible? • Take the form of the container? defined undefined somewhat attracted somewhat spaced out no yes

  17. Review:Gases • Mass? • Volume? • Form? • Attraction? • Particles? • Invisible? • Take the form of the container? undefined undefined undefined a little spread out yes/no yes

  18. Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

  19. Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas?? Particles move quickly Gas

  20. Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas?? Particles only vibrate Solid

  21. Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas?? Takes the form of its container Gas and Liquid

  22. Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas?? The particles are very spread out Gas

  23. Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas?? Defined mass Solid and Liquid

  24. Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas?? Very little attraction between the particles Gas

  25. Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas?? Does not take the form of its container Solid

  26. Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas?? Defined masse and volume Solid and Liquid

  27. Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas?? Not affected by gravity Gas

  28. Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas?? Defined masse, defined volume, undefined form Liquid

  29. Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas?? Undefined Volume Gas

  30. Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas?? Strong attraction between particles Solid

  31. Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas?? Particles can move around Gas and Liquid

  32. Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas?? Defined masse, defined volume, defined form Solid

  33. The particle theory of matter - See page 156 of Science Power 9

  34. Plasma • Exists at very high temperatures • Exists in nature • Used in atomic lasers • Examples: • The Sun’s nucleus • Stars • Flashes of lightning

  35. Plasma!!

  36. Bose-Einstein Condensates • The lowest state of matter • Exists at very cold termperatures only • Absolute Zero (0°Kelvin = -273 °Celsius) • All particle movement stops • A SUPER SOLID is formed!!

  37. Bose-Einstein Condensate

  38. CONDENSATION SOLIDIFICATION SUBLIMATION EVAPORATION MELTING Bose-Einstein Condensate

  39. Properties of Matter

  40. The classification of matter

  41. Matter Mixtures Pure Substances

  42. Pure Substances • A pure substance pure is made up of one type of particle (atoms or molecules) • Water • Chlorine • Oxygen

  43. Mixtures • Contain 2+ different types of particles that do not chemically react. They maintain their chemical characteristics but their physical properties may change. • Can be heterogenous or homogenous • Examples: • Sugar and water • Salt and pepper • Gold ring • Diet Coke

  44. Pure substances Mixture Element Compound Homogeneous Heterogeneous All particles are identical. There is more than one type of particle

  45. Matter Mixtures Pure Substances Mechanical Mixtures Solutions

  46. Types of Mixtures

  47. Classify the Mixture

  48. Classify the Mixture DietPepsi Heterogenous