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Athletic Injuries and Psychology

Athletic Injuries and Psychology

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Athletic Injuries and Psychology

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  1. Athletic Injuries and Psychology Weinberg & Gould

  2. Introduction • Role of Psychological Factors in Athletic and Exercise Injuries • Psychological factors that might predispose people to athletic injuries

  3. Introduction • Explanations for the stress-injury relationship

  4. Introduction • Typical Psychological Reactions to Injuries • Signs of Poor Adjustment to Injury

  5. Introduction • How to implement psychological skills and strategies to speed the rehabilitation process.

  6. Psychological Factors In Athletic Injuries • Individuals involved with athletes, sports, and/or exercise need to understand that how an individual psychologically reacts to an injury and how well mental strategies are used can facilitate recovery.

  7. A Model of Stress and Athletic InjuryAnderson & Williams (1988) Personality Factors History of Stressors Coping Resources Perception of Threat Stress Resp. Inc. State Anxiety Attention/ Distractions Muscle Tension Potentially Stressful Situation INJURY Psychological Skill Interventions

  8. How Injuries Happen QUESTION: • Please provide me with some examples of some typical Physical Factors that cause injury?

  9. How Injuries Happen • Typical Physical Factors: • Muscle Imbalance • High Speed Collisions • Overtraining/Undertraining • Physical Fatigue

  10. How Injuries Happen • Some examples of Psychological Factors that cause injury can include: • Personality Factors • Stress levels • Attitudes (Rotella & Heyman, 1986; Wiese & Weiss, 1987)

  11. 1. Personality Factors Need to consider personality traits such as is the person introverted/extroverted, self-concept/self-esteem; Hardiness; Type A or B Personality.

  12. 1. Personality Factors Although most research on personality and injury is conflicting, personality factors are still important to consider when working with injured individuals.

  13. 2. Stress Levels Stress is indeed an important antecedent of athletic injury. Research has examined the relation between life stress and injury rates and there is overall evidence to suggest that athletes higher in levels of life stress experience more injuries.

  14. 2. Stress Levels (continued) Fitness and Sport Professionals should ask about major changes and stressors in athletes’ lives and monitor and adjust training regimens and provide psychological support.

  15. STUDY Participants: H.S. Male and Female Athletes Sports: Basketball, Wrestling, Gymnastics Study: Examined relationship between stressful life events; social and emotional support from family, friends and coaches; coping skills; and number of days athletes could NOT participate in their sport due to injury.

  16. STUDY Results: Life stress was associated with athletic injuries of athletes who had both low levels of social support and low coping skills. Results Suggest: Athletes possessing few coping skills and little social support are at greater risk of athletic injury.

  17. STUDY A.T./Coaches: Should be on the look out for these “AT-RISK” individuals. This finding supports the Andersen and Williams model showed earlier which emphasized looking at multiple psychological factors in the stress-injury relationship (next slide).

  18. A Model of Stress and Athletic InjuryAnderson & Williams (1988) Personality Factors History of Stressors Coping Resources Perception of Threat Stress Resp. Inc. State Anxiety Attention/ Distractions Muscle Tension Potentially Stressful Situation INJURY Psychological Skill Interventions

  19. ADDITIONAL STUDY:Gould, Udry, Bridges, Beck (1997) Another investigation identified specific stress sources athletes undergo when injured and when rehabilitating from injury.

  20. ADDITIONAL STUDY:Gould, Udry, Bridges, Beck (1997) The greatest sources of stress were NOT the result of the physical aspects of the injuries themselves but the psychological reactions.

  21. ADDITIONAL STUDY:Gould, Udry, Bridges, Beck (1997) Psychological Reactions included: • Fear of reinjury • Feeling that hopes and dreams were shattered • Watching others get to perform

  22. ADDITIONAL STUDY:Gould, Udry, Bridges, Beck (1997) Social Concerns included: • Lack of attention • Negative Relationship • Isolation • Loss of identity (athlete identity)

  23. CONCLUSION: Stress Management techniques (progressive relaxation, breathing, biofeedback, etc.) may not only help the athletes and exercisers perform more effectively but also reduce their risk of injury.

  24. Explaining the Stress-Injury Relationship Understanding why athletes who experience high stress in life are more prone to injury can help you in designing effective sports medicine programs to deal with stress reactions and injury prevention. End of ATH INJ and PSYCH Part I