What is a Sexually Transmitted Disease? • STD’s are infections that are spread from person to person through intimate sexual contact. • STD’s are dangerous because they are easily spread and it is hard to tell just by looking who has an STD. • 1 in 4 teenagers has an STD.
Pregnant teen girls are carrying on average 2.3 sexually transmitted diseases. • Each day 33, 000 Americans become infected with an STD. • Today 12 thousand teenagers will contract a sexually transmitted disease
It is estimated that 20 percent of all Americans age 12 and older are infected with genital herpes. • It is estimated that there are more than 68 million current STD infections among Americans. Each year, 15.3 million new STD infections occur, including over 3 million infections in teens. The two most common STDs, herpes and human papilloma virus (HPV), account for 65 of the 68 million current infections. • Source: American Social Health Association. Sexually Transmitted Disease in America: How Many Cases and at What Cost? Menlo Park, Calif.: Kaiser Family Foundation; 1998.
In l980, four million people were reported to have been infected with an STD. By 1990 that number tripled with 12 million people reported to have a new STD infection that year. • Today, one in every five Americans between ages 15 and 55 is infected with at least one sexually transmitted disease. • The Centers for Disease Control reports there are now more than 50 known STDs. Some STDs can make you sterile. Some are incurable.
Prevention is the Key • The virtue of Chastity: Sexual self-control. Saving sexual intercourse for marriage, the context in which God intended for sexual union. • It is possible to get an STD even without having intercourse, through skin-to-skin contact.
Prevention is the Key • It is possible to get any one of the following STDs through oral sex. Oral sex is not safe sex. • The Safe-Sex Message has given and continues to give a false sense of security. Condoms have a high failure rate when attempting to prevent STDs. • 15% - 25% for preventing pregnancy (a woman can only get pregnant within a window of a few days a month. An STD can be contracted any day of the month.
Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes (HSV-2) Genital Warts (HPV) Hepatitis B HIV and AIDS Pubic Lice Syphilis Trichomoniasis Common STDs
How do I know if I have an STD? • Most people who have an STD have no symptoms. A test from your health care provider or local health clinic may be the only way to tell for sure if you're infected. • If you do become infected, symptoms may appear right away. Or, they may not show up for weeks or months or even years. They may come and go. Even if the signs and symptoms go away, you can still infect other people if you have sex with them. Or, they can still infect you!
Common Symptoms for Girls Some symptoms you may have are: • Sores, bumps or blisters near your genitals, anus or mouth • Burning or pain when you urinate • Itching, bad smell or unusual discharge from your vagina or anus • Bellyache (pain in your lower abdomen) • Bleeding from your vagina between your menstrual periods • Remember: Sometimes symptoms don't show up for weeks or months or years.
Common Symptoms for Guys Some symptoms you may have are: • Sores, bumps or blisters near your genitals, anus or mouth • Burning or pain when you urinate • Drip or discharge from your penis • Itching, pain or discharge from your anus • Remember: Sometimes symptoms don't show up for weeks or months.
What do I do if I have symptoms? • If you think you have an STD you need to see a healthcare provider for treatment. • The tests are expensive, but usually quick, and it may help to remember that the nurses and doctors are there to help you, and do this kind of test all the time.
How will they know I have an STD? • The doctor or nurse will probably ask for you to urinate in a cup. They can look under a microscope at the organisms in your urine. • Some STDs are diagnosed by taking a swab of the vagina or penis for secretions. • Other STD’s can be diagnosed by looking at the sores or bumps on your genitals. • Some STD’s are diagnosed by testing your blood.
Treatment and Facts Know the Facts!
Chlamydia • Caused by bacteria called Chlamydia Trachomatis. • Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. • Chlamydia is curable. • Your healthcare provider will give you antibiotics for treatment. • Anyone with whom you’ve had sex will also need to be treated
One attack of Chlamydia leaves you with a 35% chance of infertility (never being able to have children) A second attack of Chlamydia raises that percentage to close to 50%. A third attack of Chlamydia, and there is a very good chance you will never have children.
Untreated chlamydia infections in women may lead to: • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID). PID is a serious infection of a woman's reproductive organs. Left untreated, PID can cause infertility. • Cystitis (inflammation of the urinary bladder) • Mucopurulent (muke-o-PURE-you-lent) cervicitis, characterized by a yellow discharge from the cervix
Untreated chlamydia in men may lead to: • Prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland) • Urethral scarring • Infertility • Epididymitis (inflammation of the epididymis, which are the elongated, cord-like structure that runs along the back of the testes)
Untreated chlamydia in infants may lead: • Blindness • Complications of pneumonia, which can include death
Gonorrhea • Caused by a bacteria known as Neisseria gonorrhoeae. • Gonorrhea is treatable. • Your healthcare provider will give you antibiotics for treatment. • Anyone with whom you’ve had sex will also need to be treated
Genital Herpes (HSV-2) • HSV-2 is caused by the herpes virus. • You can still get HSV-2 even when you use a condom. • After contracting the herpes virus you will have it FOREVER. There is NO cure. • A doctor can prescribe antiviral medication to help control recurring outbreaks and clear up painful sores.
Birth Acquired Herpes Intrauterine herpes (baby) can cause severe brain damage, eye disease, such as inflammation of the retina (chorioretinitis), and skin lesions. Birth acquired herpes can produce localized disease. Infants may develop only a localized skin infection consisting of small fluid-filled blisters (vesicles) that rupture, crust over, and finally heal, often leaving a mild scar behind.
A second type of birth acquired herpes infection leads to encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain that can result in seizures and later neurological problems. If untreated, it may lead to death. The third type of infection, disseminated herpes infection, is the most dangerous. In this type, the herpes virus can affect many different internal organs including the liver, lungs, kidneys, and brain. There may or may not be vesicles on the skin. This type of infection is frequently fatal.
Symptoms: The baby may exhibit: • Poor feeding • Appears unwell or stressed • Skin lesions, fluid filled blisters • Breathing difficulties • Grunting • Flaring of the nostrils • Rapid breathing (tachypnea) • Short periods without breathing (apneic episodes) • Blue appearance (cyanosis) • Shock • Lethargy • Seizures • Enlarged liver and spleen • Kidney failure • Jaundice, Bleeding easily, Coma
Genital Warts (HPV) • Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). • There is NO cure for the virus. You may have more outbreaks and you can spread the virus to anyone you have sex with.
Genital Warts (HPV) • You can still get HPV even when you use a condom. • Some warts can be dissolved with special medication or the doctor can “freeze” them off with a special chemical.
The New England Journal of Medicine (April 18, 1996) reported that approximately one in every three female college students in America is infected with the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). The Medical Institute for Sexual Health (April, 1994) reported that the greatest danger of HPV is that it is the probable cause of almost all cervical cancer. Based on statistics provided by the American Cancer Society, it is estimated that in 1994 there were 16,000 new cases of cervical cancer and 5,000 related deaths in the United States. HPV also causes genital warts on both men and women that range in size from a small tick to the size of a cauliflower. These warts can be very difficult to cure, and sometimes require surgery. Dr. Stephen Curry of the New England Medical Center in Boston was quoted in TIME magazine as saying “This virus (HPV) is rampant. If it were not for AIDS, stories about it would be on the front page of every newspaper.”
HPV infection in the throat Normal larynx HPV infected larynx exhaling
HPV and cancer Anal dysplasia (abnormal development of tissue/cells) and anal cancer Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (VAIN) and vaginal cancer Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia (VIN) and vulvar cancer Cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer.
Hepatitis B • Hepatitis is a disease of the liver. • Hepatitis B is transmitted person to person through blood and body fluids. • There is no treatment for the virus after it has been contracted. • The only treatment is prevention: • Abstain from sex, avoid contact with other people’s blood, get immunized
HIV and AIDS • AIDS is one of the most deadly diseases in history. • AIDS is caused by HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus). • HIV destroys the body’s defense system (the immune system). • Thousands of teens in the U.S. become infected each year.
How do you get HIV? • HIV can be transmitted from an infected person to another person through blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. • People who have another STD are at higher risk for contracting HIV during sex with infected partners.
How do people know they have HIV? • Many people do not know they have it. • Symptoms may not appear for up to 10 years. • Some people may feel and look healthy for years while they are infected with HIV. • It is possible to infect others with HIV, even if the person has absolutely no symptoms.
Extreme weakness and fatigue Rapid weight loss Frequent fevers with not explanation Heavy sweating at night Swollen lymph glands Minor infections that cause skin rashes and mouth, genital, and anal sores. White spots in the mouth or throat Chronic diarrhea A cough that won’t go away Short-term memory loss Symptoms of AIDS
Kaposi’s sarcoma (Cancer associated with AIDS) Oral Leukoplakia Oral Thrush (yeast infection) Common infection associated with AIDS
How is HIV treated? • There is NO cure. • If you think you or your partner may have HIV or AIDS you need to see a healthcare provider who can do blood tests. • Prevention is the only way to protect yourself from contracting the virus.
Pubic Lice (Crabs) • Pubic lice are tiny insects that can crawl from the pubic hair of one person to the pubic hair of another person during sex. • You will be prescribed or told to buy medication that kills the lice and their eggs. • You will also need to dry clean or use very hot water to wash all of your bedding, towels, or recently worn clothing to kill the lice. • Pubic lice can be spread even when you use a condom.