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Topics for today

Topics for today

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Topics for today

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  1. Topics for today • Events of the day/week • IGOs and theories of IR • UN and EU • Study Questions, Nau p. 392 • Do you know the answers? • Why is the United Nations relatively less successful than the European Union? Hans Peter Schmitz

  2. States – and what else? • International Governmental Organizations (IGOs) • United Nations, European Union, UNESCO, NATO, FAO, WHO, WMO…. • Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) • Economic power: Multinational Corporations (MNCs) • Moral power: Transnational Advocacy Networks • Illicit power: Drug Cartels and Terrorists Hans Peter Schmitz

  3. IGO: created and joined by governments, which give them authority to make collective decisions to manage particular global problems. NGO:not created by states or other intergovernmental organizations Examples: Oxfam, International Red Cross, Amnesty International, Greenpeace, etc. IGOs and NGOs Hans Peter Schmitz

  4. IGOs in international relations • Neorealism: Instruments of great powers • Neoliberal institutionalism: Arenas facilitating cooperation • Idealism/Constructivism: Actors shaping state interests and behavior Hans Peter Schmitz

  5. Liberalism: IGO as arenas • IGOs primarily lower transaction and information costs for states: • Provide a forum for discussion • Supply informationabout problems/other actors • Help with monitoring/enforcement • Provide third-party mediation Hans Peter Schmitz

  6. Idealism: IGO as actors • Shape the social environmentof states: • Frame and constitute the state system • Favor cooperative solutions to global problems (forum effects) • Teach states about their interests • De-legitimizecertain interests and behavior (use of violence, nuclear and biological weapons, etc.). • Empower non-state activism and (universal) norms Hans Peter Schmitz

  7. Classifying IGOs • Who is admitted as a member? • What are the responsibilities of an IGO? • What are the decision-making procedures? • Majority voting, weighted voting, unanimity voting • What are the competencies of administrative bodies (secretariat)? • What mechanisms for dispute resolution exist? >>>> Comparing UN and EU Hans Peter Schmitz

  8. Classifying IGOs Mandate UN General EU G-77 Membership Universal Limited OAS NATO UNESCO, ILO, WTO, UNICEF, FAO, UNHCR, WHO OPEC Hans Peter Schmitz Specialized

  9. Comparing the UN and the EU • The United Nations • Headquarters: New York (Geneva, Vienna), Budget: $1.8 billion (2005; 4.5b for peacekeeping); ten states pay for 75% of the budget • Multi-purpose and global organization devoted to international peace and security/promotion of universal aims • Main bodies: Security Council and General Assembly • The European Union • Headquarters: Brussels (Strasbourg, Luxembourg), Budget: $121 billion (2005) • Mainly economic organization with regional membership • Main bodies: European Commission, Parliament, Council, Court of Justice, European Central Bank. Hans Peter Schmitz

  10. United States*: 440 (24%) Japan: 346 (19%) Germany: 154 (8%) UK*: 109 (6%) France*: 107 (6%) Italy: 87 (5%) Canada: 50 (3%) Spain: 45 (2%) China*: 37 (2%) Mexico: 34 (2%) South Korea: 32 (1.9%) Netherlands: 30 (1.7%) Russia*: 29(1.3%) Australia: 28 (1.2%) Brazil: 27 (1.2%) Switzerland: 21 (1%) UN Budget for 2005 (in Million-$): top contributors Hans Peter Schmitz

  11. General Assembly and Security Council • Security Council: 15 members; ten non-permanent, five permanent with veto power (China, US, Russia, France, and Great Britain). • General Assembly: One state-one vote. Africa and Asia combine now for 56 per cent of the GA votes, rather than 24 per cent in 1945. • See chart. Hans Peter Schmitz

  12. Comparing Institutions I • European Commission: independent from member states, exclusive authority to initiate legislation, “guardian of the treaties,” about 25,000 civil servants for 25 member states • UN Secretariat: responsible for day-today operations; services the principal organs of the UN; about 8,900 civil servants for 192 member states Hans Peter Schmitz

  13. Comparing Institutions II • European Parliament: directly elected representatives from all member states; approves the budget (with the Council) • UN General Assembly: one state – one vote; makes primarily non-binding decisions (resolutions; except: budget) Hans Peter Schmitz

  14. Comparing Institutions III • European Court of Justice: power to interpret and enforce EU treaties; hears cases from individuals and corporations; effective in enforcing community law • International Court of Justice: relies on prior acceptance by state parties; hears cases from states only; ineffective in enforcing international law Hans Peter Schmitz

  15. Regional IGOs Americas: Organization of American States (OAS) MERCOSUR Africa: African Union (AU, since 2002); previously: Organization of African Unity (OAU) Asia: Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) Middle East: League of Arab States Hans Peter Schmitz

  16. Why is European integration a success? • Why is European integration progressing while the UN struggles to fulfill its mandate? • Shock of World War II and the Holocaust. • United States support during in Cold War. • Economic integration as focal point. Economic growth of the 1950s/60s legitimized integration. • Cultural differences are less pronounced. Europe: A model for the rest of the world? Answer: Not likely. The United States and Germany played a unique role in the unification of Europe. Hans Peter Schmitz

  17. Summary: Understanding IGO success and limits Lessons Learned • Unique conditions in Europe after World War II. • Start with a small number of countries and focus only on economic integration. • Avoid a mismatch of mandate and capabilities. • Expand mandate and membership slowly. • Pre-screen new members and create separate steps of integration; members must be democracies. • Deepen integration on the basis of consensus, even if it takes longer. Hans Peter Schmitz