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SOLOVKI ISLAND: GEOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE PowerPoint Presentation
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SOLOVKI ISLAND: GEOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

SOLOVKI ISLAND: GEOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

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SOLOVKI ISLAND: GEOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

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  1. SOLOVKI ISLAND:GEOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

  2. Location, structure and area of Solovki archipelago • Onego bay of the White Sea (Northern Russia) • In latitude 64-65 North, in the longitude 3542’ East (the same longitude with Jerusalem) • 165 km to the Polar Circle • More then 100 small and large islands • Total area is about 300 square km

  3. The biggest islands of the archipelago • Small Mucsalma island (3sq. km) • Big Zayatski Island (2 sq. km) • Small Zayatski Island (1 sq. km • Great Solovki island (220 sq. km) • Anzer Island (47,5 sq. km) • Big Mucsalma Island – 35 sq. km

  4. The main geological features • Glacial origin (about 9 millenniums ago) • A lot f moraine deposits • Two large moraine ridges • The highest point above the sea level is 86 m

  5. The main geological features • Indented coastline (theperimeterof G.S. Island is about 86 km and the length of its coastline is about 230 km) • More then 600 lake which have glacial origin

  6. Natural phenomenon Beluga whale • 4 natural zones which are mixed • 200 kinds of lichens • No snakes • 4 original mammals Seal

  7. Natural phenomenon Fish-hawk Sea gulls Horned owl More than 200 kinds of birds

  8. Natural zones:TUNDRA (PSEUDO-TUNDRA) • Solovki tundra doesn’t have any permafrost • The total area of tundra is about 10% • The main species are crowberry, cowberry, bear-berry, heather, juniper, tundra birch, lichen, moss

  9. Natural zones:FOREST-TUNDRA • The main species are running birch, blueberry, cowberry • The total area of forest-tundra is about 10%

  10. Natural zones:TAIGA • The main species are fir and pine with birches, aspen-trees • The total area of taiga is about 60% of archipelago territory

  11. Natural zones:MIXED FOREST • The main species are birch, mountain ash • The total area of mixed forest is about 10%

  12. Other natural zones and objects • Bogs (10 %) • Lakes (13 %)

  13. Factors which determinates the climate • The sea environment • The “path” for 50% of al the European cyclones • The thinnest in the Northern Europe earth crust • 165 km to the Polar Circle

  14. Climate: average index AVERAGE DURATATIO OF DAY LIGHT June – 22 hrs. July – 20 hrs. August 16 hrs. 25 min. September 13 hrs. October 10 hrs. December 3hrs.

  15. Climate: average index AVERAGE DURATIONOF SUNSHINE DURING THE DAY January 20 min June – 10 hrs July – 10hrs August 7,5 hrs September 4hrs December 4 min

  16. Climate: average indexATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE Average annual air temperature: SolovkiArchangelsk +1,1 C (+33,98 F) +0,4 C (+32,72 F) Average monthly air temperature: SolovkiArchangelsk • January: -9,2 C (+15,44 F) -12,8 C (+8,96 F) • February: -10,1 C (+13,82 F) - 12,5 C (+9,5 F) • June: +9,2 C (+48, 56 F) +12 C (+53,6 F) • July: + 12,1 C (+53,78 F) + 15,2 C (+59, 36 F)

  17. Climate: average indexATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE Absolute minimum: Absolute maximum: - 36,6 C (-33,8 F) + 31,2 C (+88,16 F) (1893) (1972) The average date of frost Solovki Archangelsk • The first one: 6th of October 1st of September • The last one: 29th of May 7th of June The duration of frost-free period Solovki Archangelsk • Average 129 days 85 days • Maximum 170 days 131 days • Minimum 90 days –

  18. Climate: average indexWIND • About 160 windy days a year • Average annual wind speed is about 4,8 m\sec (15,75 ft\sec). • 25 days a year with wind speed more than 15 m\sec (49,21\sec.) • About 42 snowstorms every year The main directions: • March-August – north-east • September-February – south-west

  19. Climate: average indexPRECIPITATIONS • Average annual amount of precipitations: 690 mm • About 9 thunderstorms every year • About 1 hail in 5 years • About 42 snowstorms every year

  20. Climate: average index • Average annual air moisture is about 82% • Average annual index of cloudiness is about 70-80%

  21. Solovki meteostation: history • It was founded on 1st of November in 1887 • The main Physical Observatory (Saint-Petersburg) • First measurements were made by volunteer Andrew Petrov • Measurements took place three times during every 24 hours: at 7 am, at 1 pm and at 9 pm • Since 1888 measures took place 8 times a day

  22. Solovki meteostation: history • Initially in was placed near the monastery • During tragic history of GULAG Stalin forced labor camp measurements were taken by prisoners • Since 1943 the meteostation was started in a new building in the northern part of the Solovki village

  23. Solovki meteostation: present • Now it is a part of The Northern Derpartment of Hydrometeorology and monitoring of environment • There 5 people in the crew who work in shift • Usual timetable for 1 person is: 12 hrs a day, in next 24 hours – 12 hrs a night, then – 2 days off

  24. Solovki meteostation: day to day work Standard weather measurements are taken every 3 hrs: • Atmosphere temperature • Soil temperature • Humidity • Visibility • Sky conditions • Wind speed and wind direction • Pressure • Precipitations • Snow conditions • Natural phenomena

  25. Solovki meteostation: day to day work Moraine weather measurements are taken every 6 hrs: • Water temperature • Salinity • High and low tide • Ice conditions If necessary the metiostaion makes a storm warning

  26. Solovki meteostation: day to day work Measurements take place at the metrological deck Air and soil temperatures are measured with a liquid thermometers 3 thermometers for: • Present temperature • Minimal temperature • Maximum temperature

  27. Solovki meteostation: day to day work Humidity is calculated with psychrometric tables and hygrometers Pressure is measured with mercury barometer and barograph Wind speed in measured with wind indicator and weather vane

  28. Solovki meteostation: day to day work Moraine measurements take place at the tide house There is a well which is connected with the sea and with the chart to measure tides Ice conditions are observed from a tower Thickness of coastal ice is measured with a drill and a scale