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Global Climate Change

Global Climate Change

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Global Climate Change

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  1. Global Climate Change 16 CHAPTER

  2. Talk About ItWhy are rising sea levels a concern for all people, not just those who live on the Maldives Islands? Rising Seas May Flood the Maldive Islands • Sea levels are rising worldwide. • Scientists link this to global climate change. • Global climate change threatens the Maldives, a group of islands in the Indian Ocean, with flooding, severe storms, erosion, and saltwater contamination.

  3. Lesson 16.1 Our Dynamic Climate Without greenhouse gases, Earth would be too cold to support life. What is the difference between climateand weather?

  4. Lesson 16.1 Our Dynamic Climate -- Objectives Describe factors that affect how the sun warms the Earth Discuss the role of wind patterns in determining climate Explain how the oceans affect climate Describe how climate is affected by topography, volcanoes, regional vegetation, and periodic changes in Earth’s orbit Vocabulary: greenhouse effect greenhouse gas thermohalineciruclation El Nino topography

  5. Lesson 16.1 Our Dynamic Climate Three factors have more influence on Earth’s climate than all others… 1) The Sun causes… a) The Greenhouse Effect • A natural process in which greenhouse gases absorb heat and release it slowly back into the atmosphere • Greenhouse gases do not trap* energy that has been converted to heat at Earth’s surface. * Did You Know?Greenhouse gases absorb heat and release it slowly, while an actual greenhouse traps warm air inside a structure. * instead the heat is released slowly, acting more like a blanket than a greenhouse

  6. Three factors have more influence on Earth’s climate than all others… 1) The Sun causes… Lesson 16.1 Our Dynamic Climate b) The Effect of Latitude on heating the earth • Latitude is a measure of a place’s distance from the equator. • In general, the greater the latitude, the cooler a location’s overall climate will be. • The seasons are also caused by the changing angles at which sunlight strikes Earth.

  7. Three factors have more influence on Earth’s climate than all others… 1) The Sun causes… Lesson 16.1 Our Dynamic Climate c) The Effect of Sunspot Cycle on heating the earth • The more sunspots there are on the sun’s surface, the more energy it emits. • 11 year cycle • Probably not a major nor long-term effect on climate

  8. Lesson 16.1 Our Dynamic Climate POP QUIZ: Use your notes to describe factors that affect how the sun warms the Earth

  9. Three factors have more influence on Earth’s climate than all others… Lesson 16.1 Our Dynamic Climate 2) Wind • Caused by convection currents resulting from rising warm air and falling cool air • Transports moisture and heat • Global wind patterns move warm air away from equator, toward poles. • Cold air moves from poles toward equator. • Winds pick up moisture and can carry it for long distancesuntil it falls as precipitation.

  10. Lesson 16.1 Our Dynamic Climate Three factors have more influence on Earth’s climate than all others… 3) The Oceans • Ocean currents, which are caused by a combination of unequal heating of water and unequal salinity*, affect climate by transporting heat. • El Niño and La Niña are disruptions to normal climate patterns caused by variations in the typical interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere. Did You Know?The ocean absorbs a lot of carbon dioxide, causing a global cooling effect. The ocean can hold 50 times more CO2 than is found in the atmosphere. * = thermohaline

  11. Other Factors That Affect Climate Lesson 16.1 Our Dynamic Climate 1 Topography: Higher altitudes have cooler temperatures; mountain ranges affect rainfall patterns.

  12. Other Factors That Affect Climate Lesson 16.1 Our Dynamic Climate 2 Volcanoes: Gases and particles can temporarily block sunlight, causing air to cool. 3 Vegetation: Plant life promotes cloud formation and absorbs carbon dioxide. 4 Earth’s orbit: Changes in Earth’s orbit and the tilt of Earth’s axis affect the distribution of solar radiation. Did You Know?Ice ages are at least partially caused by changes in Earth’s orbit and axis. Mount St. Helens

  13. Lesson 16.1 Our Dynamic Climate – Recap Discuss with your tablemate and find evidence from your textbook to support these statements: Lesson 1 = The oceans influence Earth’s climate Central Case = Earth’s climates influences the oceans Be ready to share

  14. Lesson 16.1 Our Dynamic Climate – Recap Describe factors that affect how the sun warms the Earth Discuss the role of wind patterns in determining climate Explain how the oceans affect climate Describe how climate is affected by topography, volcanoes, regional vegetation, and periodic changes in Earth’s orbit Vocabulary: greenhouse effect greenhouse gas thermohaline circulation El Nino topography

  15. Lesson 16.2 Climate Change According to NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2009 tied for second warmest year on record, just behind 2005. The decade spanning 2000–2009 was the warmest on record. Global climate change even made the morning the TV shows

  16. Lesson 16.2 Climate Change -- Objectives Identify evidence of global warming. Explain three methods used to study climate change. State the probable cause of global climate change. Vocab: global climate change global warming proxy indicator climate model fossil fuel

  17. Lesson 16.2 Climate Change Evidence of a Warming Earth 0.74ºC (1.33ºF) from 1906 - 2005 complex • Rising global surface temperatures • Changes in precipitation patterns • Melting ice (glaciers, polar ice) • Rising sea level (Maldives) 1850—150; 2012—26 Warm water expands, melting ice adds water Both photos show Sperry Glacier in Montana’s Glacier National Park. Top: 1913: Bottom: 2008 Did You Know?Since 1986, the Larsen Ice Shelf near Antarctica has lost an area more than 3 times the size of Rhode Island.

  18. Lesson 16.2 Climate Change Both photos show Sperry Glacier in Montana’s Glacier National Park. Top: 1913: Bottom: 2008 Did You Know?Since 1986, the Larsen Ice Shelf near Antarctica has lost an area more than 3 times the size of Rhode Island.

  19. Maldives Islands

  20. Lesson 16.2 Climate Change Studying Climate Change • Direct measurement is used to study today’s climate. • Proxy indicators, such as patterns in tree rings, give clues about past climates. • Models are used to make predictions about future climates. Cross-section of a tree trunk Proxies = ice, pollen in sediments, tree rings Complex, like the global climate – atmosphere and ocean

  21. Lesson 16.2 Climate Change Finding the Cause of Climate Change • According to studies, increases in greenhouse gases are the primary cause of climate change. • The increase in greenhouse gases is mainly due to burning of fossil fuels and changes in land use (cutting forests) Charles Keeling, Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii 1958 = 315 ppm CO2 2009 = 387 ppm CO2 May, 2013 = 400 ppm CO2

  22. Lesson 16.2 Climate Change -- Recap Working with your tablemate, use your textbook and find the answers to these questions: Give 2 reasons why increasing temperatures cause sea levels to rise How can this affect the Maldives Islands of the Central Case?

  23. Lesson 16.2 Climate Change -- Recap Identify evidence of global warming. Explain three methods used to study climate change. State the probable cause of global climate change. Vocab: global climate change global warming proxy indicator climate model fossil fuel

  24. Lesson 16.3 Effects of Climate Change In 2003, a severe heat wave in Europe killed 35,000 people.

  25. Lesson 16.3 Effects of Climate Change -- Objectives State ways in which the warming atmosphere affects ecosystems and organisms. Explain how climate change is affecting people now. Predict future effects of climate change on people. Vocabulary: coral bleaching

  26. Complete this scatter chart Lesson 16.3 Effects of Climate Change -- Recap Ch 16-3 detail example detail Effects of Climate Change on Living Things example example detail example example detail detail

  27. Lesson 16.3 Effects of Climate Change Effects on Organisms • Habitats shift, usually toward the poles or to higher altitudes. • Migrations start earlier in the spring. • Problems Obtaining Food • Loss of ice makes hunting seals difficult for polar bears. Did You Know?Robins arrive on a Colorado mountaintop about 2 weeks earlier than they did in 1970. Migrating sandhill cranes

  28. Lesson 16.3 Effects of Climate Change Effects of a Changing Ocean • An increase in ocean temperature is associated with a process called coral bleaching, in which zooxanthellae algae living within corals die. Without the algae, coral cannot survive. • Changes in ocean acidity, resulting from an increase in dissolved carbon dioxide, can harm organisms. H2O + CO2 H2CO3 The color of healthy brain coral comes from algae.When the algae die, as above, coral bleaching occurs. Carbonic acid; increases acidity; lower pH;

  29. Lesson 16.3 Effects of Climate Change pH Scale H2O + CO2 H2CO3 Carbonic acid; increases acidity; lower pH;

  30. Lesson 16.3 Effects of Climate Change Current Effects of Global Climate Change • Agriculture and forestry: Effects are complex. • Can be positive: Lengthened growing season for some crops • Can be negative: Droughts and forest fires; shortened growing season • Economy: Decreased yields; increased property damage due to severe storms and climate conditions • Human health: Extreme heat waves increasingly common, can cause heat stroke and death Damage caused by Hurricane Katrina, in 2005

  31. Lesson 16.3 Effects of Climate Change Pictures from SuperStorm Sandy, 2010(property damage due to severe storms)

  32. Lesson 16.3 Effects of Climate Change Future Effects of Climate Change • Diseases: Warmer temperatures can promote spread of diseases transmitted from animals to people. • Sea level: Low-lying populated coastal areas may flood as sea levels rise. • Water supply: Saltwater contamination of aquifers resulting from rising sea levels and a decrease in glacial ice may threaten freshwater supplies. Black-legged ticks, known to spread Lyme disease Did You Know?In the United States, 53% of the population lives in coastal areas.

  33. link

  34. Complete this scatter chart Lesson 16.3 Effects of Climate Change -- Recap Polar bears, migrating birds Shifting habitats Problems obtaining food Affects corals & other ocean organisms CA Lilac Effects of Climate Change on Living Things Ocean acidity Robins Coral bleaching Changes in migration times Warmer ocean temperature

  35. Lesson 16.3 Effects of Climate Change -- Recap Working with your tablemate, use your textbook to answer these questions: Give detailed examples of the effects of climate change on the Maldives What is predicted to be the future impact of climate change on the Maldives?

  36. Lesson 16.3 Effects of Climate Change -- Recap answers: > flooding > severity of storms >damage to reefs (protection and food) >threats to drinking water supply (salt water incursion) Future = uninhabitable

  37. Lesson 16.3 Effects of Climate Change -- Recap State ways in which the warming atmosphere affects ecosystems and organisms. Explain how climate change is affecting people now. Predict future effects of climate change on people. Vocabulary: coral bleaching

  38. Lesson 16.4 Responding to Climate Change Fossil fuel combustion generates 70% of the electricity used in the United States. Energy conserving light bulbs

  39. Lesson 16.4 Responding to Climate Change -- Objectives List ways to reduce greenhouse gases related to the use and generation electricity. Describe some of the ways of reducing greenhouse gases related to transportation Describe other strategies for reducing greenhouse gases. Explain how nations are working together to try to address climate change Vocab: carbon footprint carbon tax carbon offset carbon sequestration Kyoto Protocol Energy conserving light bulbs

  40. Lesson 16.4 Responding to Climate Change Use and Production of Electricity • Carbon footprint: The amount of carbon dioxide for which an individual or group is responsible • Most electricity is generated by burning fossil fuels. • Reducing electricity use reduces carbon footprints. • Ways to reduce electricity use: • Use energy-efficient technologies, which lessen the electricity needed to do a job. • Reduce the use of electrical devices and appliances.

  41. Lesson 16.4 Responding to Climate Change http://myfootprint.org/en/quiz_results/

  42. Lesson 16.4 Responding to Climate Change http://www.nature.org/greenliving/carboncalculator/#

  43. Lesson 16.4 Responding to Climate Change http://www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/GFN/page/calculators/

  44. Lesson 16.4 Responding to Climate Change Your footprint is 9.68 metric tons per year The average footprint for people in United States is 20.40 metric tons The average for the industrial nations is about 11 metric tons The average worldwide carbon footprint is about 4 metric tons The worldwide target to combat climate change is 2 metric tons http://www.carbonfootprint.com/calculator.aspx http://coolclimate.berkeley.edu/carboncalculator

  45. Lesson 16.4 Responding to Climate Change Alternate Sources of Electricity • Alternative Sources of Electricity • Nuclear power • Solar power • Wind power • Hydroelectric power • Geothermal power Wind turbines

  46. Lesson 16.4 Responding to Climate Change Advances in Vehicle Technology • Transportation is the second largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in the United States, second only to electricity. • Alternatives to fuel-only cars include: • Gasoline-electric hybrid vehicles • Vehicles that use alternative fuels such as compressed natural gas • Vehicles that use hydrogen fuel cells. Energy Loss in a Car

  47. Lesson 16.4 Responding to Climate Change Reducing Dependence on Cars • Biking, walking, and using public transportation are all ways to reduce fossil fuel use. • Many communities lack good public transportation. Did You Know? The average American family makes 10 trips by car each day.

  48. Lesson 16.4 Responding to Climate Change Strategies for Reducing Greenhouse Gases • Agriculture / forestry: Reduce soil erosion and replace cut trees, to curb CO2 emissions • Cap-and-Trade: System of emission allowances that can be sold or traded, gives companies incentive to reduce emissions • Carbon tax: A tax per unit on emissions • Carbon offsets: Instead of directly reducing emissions, companies can make a voluntary payment to a group that reduces or curbs greenhouse gases. • Carbon sequestration: Technology is used to trap and store carbon dioxide emissions.

  49. Lesson 16.4 Responding to Climate Change Cooperation Among Nations • The Kyoto Protocol is a binding international effort to reduce greenhouse gases to below 1990 levels. • The United States did not sign the Kyoto Protocol. • Many nations are planning to develop a new binding agreement to address global climate change some time in the future. The Kyoto Protocol required developed nations to reduce emissions but did not require the same of developing nations, such as China and India, because industrialized nations created the current greenhouse gas problem so we should take the lead in solving it. What do you think of this?