Global Climate Change What in the world is going on?
Headlines from the Planet OCEAN WARMING CREATES PACIFIC WASTELAND
Headlines from the Planet SMALL TEMPERATURE RISE FUELS MIGRATIONS OF SEA ANIMALS
Headlines from the Planet BUTTERFLY STUDY CONFIRMS WARMING-DRIVEN MIGRATIONS
Headlines from the Planet MELTING OF THE WORLD’S GLACIERS ACCELERATES
Headlines from the Planet FOREST GROWTH STUNTED BY INCREASED HEAT, CO2
Headlines from the Planet ARCTIC WARMING REVEALED IN SOIL, SURFACE, AND OCEAN MEASUREMENTS
Headlines from the Planet HEAT-ENHANCING VAPOR INCREASES IN UPPER ATMOSPHERE
Headlines from the Planet NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN WAVES 50 PERCENT HIGHER
Headlines from the Planet U.S. WHEATFIELDS COULD BE DESERTS IN A DECADE
Headlines from the Planet DESERT CONDITIONS SPREADING IN SOUTHERN EUROPE
Headlines from the Planet RISING TEMPERATURES BRING EARLIER SPRINGTIMES
Headlines from the Planet SCIENTISTS DISCOVER FURTHER DISINTEGRATION OF ANTARCTIC SHELVES
Headlines from the Planet CLIMATE CHANGES FUEL SPREAD OF OLD, NEW DISEASES
GREENHOUSE FACTS • Fact I: Carbon dioxide levels have increased from 277 ppm 204 years ago to 384 ppm now. ppm = parts per million
GCC FACTS • Fact II: Global average temperatures are now about 0.5 Co (0.8 Fo) warmer than just 30 years ago.
In 1995, 2,000 scientists from 100 countries reported to the United Nations that, without a doubt, the warming has been caused by human activities. This was the largest, most rigorous scientific study in history.
In February, 2007, in Paris, the world’s leading climate scientists & representatives from 113 governments said that warming is occurring and that it will be hard to stop. • Representatives from governments of the U.S., China, and India were absent.
THE GREENHOUSE GASES • Carbon Dioxide (57%) CO2 • Methane (20%) CH4 • Nitrous Oxide (5%) N2O • Chlorofluorocarbons (15%) • *Freon-11 CFCl3 Freon-12 CF2Cl 2
GREENHOUSE GASES (cont.) • *Ozone O3 • Methyl Chloroform CHCl3 • Carbon Tetrachloride CCl4 • Carbon Monoxide CO • Water Vapor H2O All of these together: 3 %
SOURCES OF MOST IMPORTANT GREENHOUSE GASES: CO2 CO2 (The “gang leader”) from fossil fuel combustion: (90 %/year) from biomass burning: (10 %/year)
SOURCES OF MOST IMPORTANT GREENHOUSE GASES: Methane • Wetlands (33 %) • Termites (5 %) • Oceans (2 %) • Wild Animals (1 %) • Cattle (15 %) • Rice Paddies (14 %) • Biomass Burning (14 %) • Fossil Fuel Operations (10 %) • Others (6 %)
SOURCES OF MOST IMPORTANT GREENHOUSE GASES: Nitrous Oxide • Natural soils (50 %) • Fossil fuel combustion (26 %) • Biomass burning (5 %) • Cultivating/Fertilizing (14%) • Others (4%)
SOURCES OF MOST IMPORTANT GREENHOUSE GASES: Chlorofluorocarbons • A/C systems (50%) • Foam materials (13%) • Aerosol propellants (32%) • Solvents (5%)
Possible Consequences of an Intensified Greenhouse Effect 1. Climate variables changed wind rainfall cloud cover ocean currents polar ice caps Resulting in: drier continental interiors wetter coasts rising sea levels shortened cold seasons lengthened warm seasons
Possible Consequences (cont.) 2. Ripple effect through world economy as shifts occur in: Soil conditions Crop yields Salinity of water supplies Water available for hydroelectric power Drying of NW US forests Thawing of permafrost & methane clathrates
Possible Consequences (cont.) 3. Agriculture Some crops will grow faster, needing more fertilizer. Food quality can deteriorate. Insects would have to eat more (more insecticides needed).
Possible Consequences (cont.) 4. Social & Political Consequences: Emigration from Sun Belt U.S. vs. Russian agriculture shifts and balance of power. Sea level rise leading to environmental refugees Less pack ice in northern shipping lanes
Possible Consequences (cont.) 4. Social & Political Consequences (cont.) Great Lakes - ice free 11 months a year, but lower water levels Midwestern crops may suffer. Emigrants from flooded island nations (Maldives) India & Bangladesh battered by more storms, flooding.
One Last Look at the T/CO2 Fit • Blue: Temp. • Red: CO2
HOW CAN WE HELP? “Tie-in” Strategies 1. Be energy-efficient and conserve energy. 2. Drive a fuel-efficient car. Walk more. 3. Plant a tree. 4. Don’t use CFC products. 5. Drive less. There is a lot of different ways to get around.
HOW CAN WE HELP????????? “Tie-in” Strategies 6. THE MOST IMPORTANT: SPREAD THE WORD! Everyone needs to help because…