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3000 BCE to 332 BCE. Ancient Egypt. Ancient Egypt. app. 10,000 sq. miles the same as Sumer and Akkad radically different in shape a ribbon of fertile land 600 miles long half a dozen miles wide for most of its length compared to 165 miles in Mesopotamia. Nile and Egypt DBQ.
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3000 BCE to 332 BCE Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt • app. 10,000 sq. miles • the same as Sumer and Akkad • radically different in shape • a ribbon of fertile land 600 miles long • half a dozen miles wide for most of its length • compared to 165 miles in Mesopotamia
Nile and Egypt DBQ • The Nile River Shaped the Egyptian culture. • List ways that the Nile shaped Egyptian culture and what document you got this info Example: The way the Nile shaped the culture (Doc 5)
Comparison and Contrast with Babylon • profound differences • because of environmental conditions • Mesopotamia: open to invasion • Egypt: isolated by geography
Different Perspectives • Mesopotamians: pessimistic • life is unpredictable, their gods unstable, their afterlife indistinct and undesirable • Egyptian religion inspired confidence • in the eternal, stable order of the universe
Different Perspectives, con’t • divinely guided, rhythmic cycle of life and death • and belief in a final, eternal bliss
Ancient Egyptian Housing Middle Class Homes Peasant Homes
Making Ancient Egyptian Beer How did Beer Save the World?
An Egyptian Woman’s “Must-Haves” Mirror Perfume Whigs
Hieroglyphics “Alphabet” 24 “letters” + 700 phonetic symbols
Papyrus Paper Hieratic Scroll Piece Papyrus Plant
Hieroglyphics On a temple
Egyptian Math & Draftsmenship What number is this?
Sculpture • early and sophisticated development • human figures and archicectural forms • led to great expertise in painting and other representational arts
Unifier of Upper & Lower Egypt • There is conflicting historical evidence over who united Upper and Lower Egypt. Some evidence points to a king called Scorpion. More solid evidence points to a king named Narmer. (also known as Menes) c. 3050 B. C. E. ?
Kings and Queens of Egypt • Pharaoh: link between the gods and people • Pharaoh: divine • his rule eternal and absolute • Egypt was not just ruled for the gods but by a god
Distinctions ? • human vs. divine ?? • They could tell the difference • in practice: whoever held the throne was divine • including: women, foreigners, commoners
The Pharaoh • shed his impermanent and human status • assumed the eternal and unchangeable divine status • became the embodiment of the divine • led a divinely unified Egyptian state
Egyptian Religion • each city had its patron deity • emergence of national government caused some to be more important • as dynasties changed, the primary gods changed • why??
Examples • Memphis: Ptah • later, as the center of power changed, Re/Ra • or Horus • etc.
Osiris, god of resurrection Also known, as the Throne
Isis Sister and wife of Osiris, mother of Horus
Isis, with the child Horus Virgin Birth Provides the iconographic style for the later representations of Mary and the baby Jesus
Horns removed, the moon is dropped, behind the head, to become the halo.
Horus • Horus is the son of the god Osiris • Born of a virgin • Baptized in a river by Anup the Baptizer • Who was later beheaded • Horus was tempted while alone in a desert • Healed the sick and the blind • Cast out demons
Horus continued • Walked on water • Resurrected “Asar” from the dead. • This translates to “Lazurus” • Had 12 disciples • Was crucified • After 3 days two women announced that Horus, the savior of humanity has risen from the dead
Egyptian Gods & Goddesses:“The Sacred ‘Trinity’” Osiris Isis Horus
Early Creation Story • Atum • primeval mound of mud (Annual inundation of the Nile?) • godly masturbation (How do you get a date when there is nobody there but you?) • generation of the gods
Egyptian Mummies Ramses II1279-1212 B. C. E. Seti I1291-1278 B. C. E. Queen Tiye, wife of Amenhotep II1210-1200 B. C. E.