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Ancient Egypt

3000 BCE to 332 BCE. Ancient Egypt. Ancient Egypt. app. 10,000 sq. miles the same as Sumer and Akkad radically different in shape a ribbon of fertile land 600 miles long half a dozen miles wide for most of its length compared to 165 miles in Mesopotamia. Nile and Egypt DBQ.

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Ancient Egypt

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  1. 3000 BCE to 332 BCE Ancient Egypt

  2. Ancient Egypt • app. 10,000 sq. miles • the same as Sumer and Akkad • radically different in shape • a ribbon of fertile land 600 miles long • half a dozen miles wide for most of its length • compared to 165 miles in Mesopotamia

  3. Nile and Egypt DBQ • The Nile River Shaped the Egyptian culture. • List ways that the Nile shaped Egyptian culture and what document you got this info Example: The way the Nile shaped the culture (Doc 5)

  4. Comparison and Contrast with Babylon • profound differences • because of environmental conditions • Mesopotamia: open to invasion • Egypt: isolated by geography

  5. Different Perspectives • Mesopotamians: pessimistic • life is unpredictable, their gods unstable, their afterlife indistinct and undesirable • Egyptian religion inspired confidence • in the eternal, stable order of the universe

  6. Different Perspectives, con’t • divinely guided, rhythmic cycle of life and death • and belief in a final, eternal bliss

  7. Ancient Egyptian Housing Middle Class Homes Peasant Homes

  8. Scenes of Ancient EgyptianDaily Life

  9. Making Ancient Egyptian Beer How did Beer Save the World?

  10. Making Ancient Egyptian Wine

  11. An Egyptian Woman’s “Must-Haves” Mirror Perfume Whigs

  12. Egyptian Nobility

  13. Egyptian Priestly Class

  14. Egyptian Scribe

  15. Hieroglyphics “Alphabet” 24 “letters” + 700 phonetic symbols

  16. Papyrus  Paper Hieratic Scroll Piece Papyrus Plant

  17. Papyrus text

  18. Making papyrus

  19. Hieroglyphics On a temple

  20. Egyptian Math & Draftsmenship What number is this?

  21. Hieroglyphic “Cartouche”

  22. Champollion & the Rosetta Stone

  23. Sculpture • early and sophisticated development • human figures and archicectural forms • led to great expertise in painting and other representational arts

  24. Unifier of Upper & Lower Egypt • There is conflicting historical evidence over who united Upper and Lower Egypt. Some evidence points to a king called Scorpion. More solid evidence points to a king named Narmer. (also known as Menes) c. 3050 B. C. E. ?

  25. Kings and Queens of Egypt • Pharaoh: link between the gods and people • Pharaoh: divine • his rule eternal and absolute • Egypt was not just ruled for the gods but by a god

  26. Distinctions ? • human vs. divine ?? • They could tell the difference • in practice: whoever held the throne was divine • including: women, foreigners, commoners

  27. The Pharaoh • shed his impermanent and human status • assumed the eternal and unchangeable divine status • became the embodiment of the divine • led a divinely unified Egyptian state

  28. Egyptian Book of the Dead

  29. Egyptian Religion • each city had its patron deity • emergence of national government caused some to be more important • as dynasties changed, the primary gods changed • why??

  30. Examples • Memphis: Ptah • later, as the center of power changed, Re/Ra • or Horus • etc.

  31. Ptah

  32. Amun

  33. Atum

  34. Osiris, god of resurrection Also known, as the Throne

  35. Isis Sister and wife of Osiris, mother of Horus

  36. Isis, with the child Horus Virgin Birth Provides the iconographic style for the later representations of Mary and the baby Jesus

  37. Horns removed, the moon is dropped, behind the head, to become the halo.

  38. Horus

  39. Horus • Horus is the son of the god Osiris • Born of a virgin • Baptized in a river by Anup the Baptizer • Who was later beheaded • Horus was tempted while alone in a desert • Healed the sick and the blind • Cast out demons

  40. Horus continued • Walked on water • Resurrected “Asar” from the dead. • This translates to “Lazurus” • Had 12 disciples • Was crucified • After 3 days two women announced that Horus, the savior of humanity has risen from the dead

  41. Egyptian Gods & Goddesses:“The Sacred ‘Trinity’” Osiris Isis Horus

  42. Early Creation Story • Atum • primeval mound of mud (Annual inundation of the Nile?) • godly masturbation (How do you get a date when there is nobody there but you?) • generation of the gods

  43. Egyptian Mummies Ramses II1279-1212 B. C. E. Seti I1291-1278 B. C. E. Queen Tiye, wife of Amenhotep II1210-1200 B. C. E.

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