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Chapter 6
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Chapter 6

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  1. Chapter 6 Skeletal System

  2. Functions • Support • Protect • Movement and anchorage • Mineral storage • hemopoiesis

  3. Structure and Formation of Bone • Osteocytes • Mature bone cell • Organic material (flexibility) • Collagen • Jellylike material • Inorganic material (hardness and durability)

  4. Long Bones • Shaft or diaphysis • Each end is the epiphysis • Covered by articular cartilage • In center is the medullary canal • Yellow bone marrow • Endosteum (lining of the marrow canal)

  5. Long Bones • Red marrow • Ends of long bones • Manufacture red blood cells and some white blood cells • Periosteum • Covering on outside of the bone

  6. Growth • Grow in length • Ossify from center outward • Osteoblasts • Osteoclasts

  7. Growth • Growth stops when all the epiphyseal cartilage is ossified • Females grow until about 18 years of age • Males grow until about 20-21 years of age

  8. Bone Types • Long bones • Flat bones • Irregular bones • Short bones

  9. Skeletal System • Axial skeleton • Skull, spinal column, ribs, sternum, and hyoid bone • Appendicular skeleton • Upper and lower extremities

  10. Axial Skeleton • 22 bones of the skull • 14 facial bones • Spinal column (vertebra) • Ribs and sternum

  11. The Skull

  12. The Skull

  13. Appendicular SkeletonUpper Extremities • Shoulder girdle • Arm • Hand

  14. Appendicular SkeletonLower Extremities • Pelvic girdle • Upper leg • Lower leg • Ankle • Foot

  15. Joints • Called articulations • Points of contact between two bones • Diarthroses (moveable) joints • Amphiarthroses (partially movable) joints • Synarthroses (immovable) joints

  16. Joints • Articular cartilage • Articular capsule • Synovial membrane • Synovial fluid • Synovial cavity • Bursa sacs

  17. Diarthroses Joints • Movable joints • Ball-and-socket joints • Hinge joints • Pivot joints • Gliding joints

  18. Animation – Types of Joints Click Here to play Types of Joints animation

  19. Amphiarathroses Joints • Partially movable joints • Cartilage between their articular surfaces • Examples: • Ribs to the spine • Symphysis pubis

  20. Synarthroses Joints • Immovable joints • Connects by tough, fibrous connective tissue • Example: • Adult cranium • Cranial joints called sutures

  21. Types of Motion • Flexion • Extension • Abduction • Adduction • Circumduction

  22. Types of Motion • Rotation • Promation • Supination

  23. Aging • Bone mass and density decline • External surfaces of bones thicken • Intervertebral cartilage disks shrink • Center of balance is altered

  24. Aging • Joints less mobile • Increased rigidity and decreased flexibility • Fear of falling

  25. Disorders of the Bones and Joints • Fracture • Greenstick • Closed/simple • Open/compound • Comminuted

  26. Animation – Types of Fractures Click Here to play Types of Fractures animation

  27. Repairing Fractures • Closed reduction • Open reduction • Traction

  28. Bone and Joint Injuries • Dislocation • Sprain • Hammer Toe • RICE

  29. Diseases • Arthritis • Rheumatoid arthritis • Osteoarthritis • Gout • Rickets

  30. Diseases • Slipped (herniated) disc • Whiplash injury

  31. Abnormal Curvatures of the Spine • Kyphosis (hunchback) • Lordosis (swayback) • Scoliosis

  32. Other Disorders • Osteoporosis • Osteomyelitis • Osteosarcoma