Moon FACTS • The Moon is a natural Satellite that revolves around the Earth • The Moon is made of rock • The Moon is 382,400 kilometers 250,000miles from Earth • The moon is about ¼ the size of Earth • The moon’s gravity is about 1/6th that of Earth. • The moon has craters, which are indents left by meteor impact. • The moon does not produce it’s own light; it reflects light from the sun. The moon has frozen water • The moon has a very very small atmosphere. • The moon doesn’t shine on its own, it reflects sunlight
Motions of the moon • The moon orbits the Earth • The moon takes 28 days to revolve around the Earth • The moon takes 28 days to rotate once on its axis • The moon orbits at an angle compared to the Earth’s orbit around the sun. (See image)
Sun Moon Earth connections • Phases • Eclipses • Tides
What causes the phases of the moon? The phases of the Moon depend on its position in relation to the Sun and Earth. As the Moon makes its way around the Earth, we see the bright parts of the Moon's surface at different angles. These are called "phases" of the Moon.
Only part of the lit half of the moon can be seen from Earth. We call the lit part that we can see phases. Each phase has a different name.
-The cycle starts with the new moon and goes counter clockwise. -The cycle lasts 28 days, which is the time it takes for the moon to orbit the Earth one time.
Eclipses • The Sun and Moon occasionally line up so that we have an eclipse.
Solar Eclipses SOLAR ECLIPSE: When the Moon’s shadow covers part of the Earth • Three types: Annular, Partial, and Total • Only happens at New Moon
Solar Eclipse This animation shows that the moon creates a small shadow which Only allows certain areas of the earth to see a total solar eclipse.
Here is an animation showing a total solar eclipse Remember that it is not safe to stare at a solar eclipse !!!
Partial Solar Eclipse • Animation • View from Earth
Lunar Eclipse That the moon is covered by the Earth’sshadow This Eclipse safe to look at.
2 Types of Lunar Eclipses: Total Lunar Eclipse- when the moon passes through the Umbra of Earth’s the shadow Partial Lunar Eclipse: the moon passes through thePenmbraof the Earth’s shadow
Total Lunar Eclipse Animation Sometimes the moon turns red when totality occurs.
Three types of Lunar Eclipses • Who on Earth will be able to see a lunar eclipse? Anyone who can see the Moon (anyone who is on the nighttime side of the Earth during the eclipse)
Which kind of eclipse is there during a • Full moon? LUNAR ECLIPSE • New moon? SOLAR ECLIPSE
Tides • What causes the tides? • What is a spring tide? • What is a neap tide?
What Are Tides? • Tides are the daily riseand fallof Earth’s waterson its coastlines. • As the tide comes in, the level of water on the beach rises, and as the tide goes out, the level of water on the beach goes down. • Tides occur in all bodies of water, but they are most noticeable in the oceanand large lakes.
High Tides • High tides are when the water reaches its highest point.
Low Tides • Low tides are when the water reaches its lowest point.
What Causes Tides? • Tides are caused by the interactionof Earth, the Moon, and the Sun. • Gravityis the reason for tides. • Gravity is the forceexerted by an object that pullsother objects toward it.
Moon’s Gravity and Tides • The Moon’s gravityaffects the wateron Earth’s surface. • Since the Moon is closeto the Earth, it has a stronggravitational pull on it (closer objects have stronger gravitational pull).
Moon’s Gravity – Tidal Bulges • The Moon pulls on the water on the side nearestto it more strongly than it pulls on the center of the Earth. • This pullcreates a bulge of water, called a tide bulge, on the side of Earth facing the the Moon.
Moon’s Gravity – Tidal Bulges • The water on the side of Earth facing away from the Moon has a lessstrong pull. • This water is “left behind” and forms a second bulge. • As Earth rotates, different places on the planet’s surface pass through the areas of the tidalbulges and have the change in water levels.
Tidal Bulges – High Tide • In places where there are tidal bulges, high tideis occurring along the coastlines. High Tide High Tide
Tidal Bulges – Low Tide • In places betweenthe bulges, lowtide is occurring. LOW TIDE LOW TIDE
Sun’s Gravity and Tides • The Sun is so large that its gravityalso affects tides. • At times, the Sunand Moon pull together on Earth’s waters in the same direction. (SPRING TIDES) • At other times they pull in differentdirections. (NEAP TIDES)
Daily Tide Cycle • Most seashores have four tides every day – twohigh tides and twolow tides.
Monthly Tide Cycle • Changes in the positions of Earth, the Moon, and Sun affect the height of tides during a month.
Spring Tides • Springtides occur 2 times a month, during a full and new moon when the Earth, Sun, and Moon are lined up. • Spring tides are higher and lowerthan normal tides. • “strongtides”
Neap Tides • Neaptides occur in between spring tides, at the first and third quarters of the Moon when the Sun and Moon pull at right angles to each other. • Neap tides are not as high or low as normal tides. • “weaktides”