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cytoskeleton

cytoskeleton

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cytoskeleton

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  1. Endomembrane system • Genetic control Directions: the cell has many organelles. If you looked closely, you could group them into these 5 categories. WITHOUT WRITING, discuss with your neighbor, what organelles could be placed in each group. What are the functions of the organelles belonging to the group? If you had to identify an overall task for the group, what would it be? cytoskeleton • Energy transformation • Extracellular components

  2. Endomembrane system • Genetic control A series of membranes within the eukaryotic cell that are continuous with each other. These membranes communicate via vesicles produce on one surface which then moves to another. Building of proteins-over 100,000 different types. Protein synthesis must be regulate so raw materials & energy is not wasted. • Includes • Nucleus: nucleolus, chromosomes (DNA), ribosomes • Includes • Vesicles: sacs made of membranes • Nuclear envelope, RER & SER, golgi, lysosomes, vacuoles, plasma membrane…task is determine by the job of the organelle cytoskeleton unique to eukaryotic cells. A three-dimensional structure that fills the cytoplasm. acts as both muscle & skeleton, for movement & stability. • Energy transformation Includes microfilaments, microtubules, & intermediate filaments. Centrosomes/centrioles, cilia and flagella • Extracellular components

  3. Microfilaments • thread-like protein fibers, 3-6 nm in diameter. They are composed predominantly of a contractile protein called actin, which is the most abundant cellular protein. Microfilaments' association with the protein myosin is responsible for muscle contraction. Microfilaments can also carry out cellular movements including gliding, contraction, and cytokinesis.

  4. Microtubules • are cylindrical tubes, 20-25 nm in diameter. • They are composed of subunits of the protein tubulin • Act as a scaffold to determine cell shape, and provide a set of "tracks" for cell organelles and vesicles to move on. • form the spindle fibers for separating chromosomes during mitosis. • When arranged in geometric patterns inside flagella and cilia, they are used for locomotion.

  5. Intermediate filaments • are about 10 nm diameter and provide tensile (maximum) strength for the cell.

  6. Endomembrane system • Genetic control A series of membranes within the eukaryotic cell that are continuous with each other. These membranes communicate via vesicles produce on one surface which then moves to another. Building of proteins-over 100,000 different types. Protein synthesis must be regulate so raw materials & energy is not wasted. • Includes • Nucleus: nucleolus, chromosomes (DNA), ribosomes • Includes • Vesicles: sacs made of membranes • Nuclear envelope, RER & SER, golgi, lysosomes, vacuoles, plasma membrane…task is determine by the job of the organelle cytoskeleton unique to eukaryotic cells. A three-dimensional structure that fills the cytoplasm. acts as both muscle & skeleton, for movement & stability. • Energy transformation Includes Mitochondria (cellular respiration), chloroplast (photosynthesis), perioxisomes (breaking down hydrogen perioxide into water and oxygen . Includes microfilaments, microtubules, & intermediate filaments. Centrosomes/centrioles, cilia and flagella • Extracellular components provides structural support Cell wall, plasmodesmata, tight junction, gap junctions, desmosomes,