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Chapter Two

Chapter Two

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Chapter Two

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    1. Chapter Two Curriculum versus the child

    2. William Torrey Harris: Preeminent figure in educational world during last quarter of 19th century Resisted the idea of massive reform in education especially given the great social transformation that had taken place in American society. Last great spokesman for the humanist curriculum. His views supported by the majority of teachers and administrators across the country

    3. Was an advocate of rugged individualism Also believed that the individual achieves realization only by subordinating himself or herself to social institutions What was meant by his philosophy of self activity?

    4. School must train kids to gain control over their natural impulses Question of course of study is the most important question: Do not take from childrens impulses or interests Should take form the great resources of civilization Learn by doing is a problem without some guiding direction Content important rather than form

    5. Thus what should be taught in Harriss view of curriculum? Coordinate groups of study (five windows of the soul) Mathematics Geography History Grammar Literature and art

    6. How did these five windows of the soul work to in the education of a child?

    7. Why were the other subject subordinate to these five?

    8. Harris distanced himself from the doctrine of mental discipline, why? Why did his version of a humanist curriculum require little revamping of schools?

    9. Why did the child study movement pose the greatest threat to Harriss humanist position?

    10. What was Colonel Francis Parkers view? Introduced the word method of teaching reading replacing phonics

    11. What is this method known as? Whole language..

    12. Granville Stanley Hall (Dewey studied with): Probably the greatest champion for the developmentalists cause in education.

    13. Granville Stanley Hall (Dewey studied with): Personal goal: to become known as the Darwin of the mind. Was the epitome of the new breed of social scientists who saw the schools as in need of drastic reform in order to bring their program of studies in line with scientific findings about the nature of the child life Kliebard, p. 30

    14. Appeal of a Pedagogical system based on sound scientific principles enormous Could bring to bear the authority of science to the growing belief that the childs own natural impulses could be used as a way of addressing the questions of what to teach Kliebard, p. 37 As editor of Pedagogical Seminary assumed the unquestioned leadership of the developmentalist movement in education reform

    15. What were the differences within the child study movement?

    16. However a general belief that the school thwarted the childs basic need for activity by treating children as passive receptacles and presenting with programs of study that ran contrary to their natural tendencies and predilections Kliebard, p.38

    17. Hall had some really strange ideas of almost mythic proportions What were they and why were they so strange?

    18. Hall and Harris were in direct opposition, why?

    19. What was Halls view about how how we should educate individually and by gender? What should the curriculum be dominated by until age eight and why?

    20. What should dominate the curriculum after age eight?

    21. What problems did Hall have with the components of what has often been termed a classical education?

    22. What three areas did Hall believe should make-up a curriculum and why?

    23. John Dewey: His ideas and philosophies represented a a major departure from any established movement. His ideas were and integration and reinterpretation of current groups

    24. The Dewey School: Became a significant chapter in school reform movement Solid theory that guided His painstaking educational theory converted into a pitiful caricature, such as learning by doing or neglected altogether Kliebard, p.27 Why? Influence over schools in the nation seriously distorted and overestimated

    25. Factors influencing his involvement in educational matters: Marriage and births of their children Work in psychology looking towards practical applications in the classroom Appointment to Univ of Michigan Faculty Spent time out in the schools Associated with the American Herbartians

    26. Welcomed the scientific study of the child but was cautious Welcomed the scientific study of the child but was cautious Why?

    27. Why was he concerned that the child study movement had become isolated from the discipline of psychology?

    28. What were Deweys criticism of the child study movement?

    29. Why did Dewey take exception to Halls philosophy about a different kind of education for a special role in society based on alleged natural tendencies already present in the child?

    30. What was Deweys answer? See p. 48