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Teen Pregnancy

Teen Pregnancy

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Teen Pregnancy

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Teen Pregnancy • A teenage girl gets pregnant every 30 seconds • 1 in 10 female teenagers gets pregnant each year • 4 in 10 of all girls become pregnant at least once before they reach the age of 20. • The bones and muscles of teenagers are not ready for the physical stresses of pregnancy • Pregnant teens must eat well and get adequate medical care in order to stay healthy and increase their chance of delivering a healthy baby

  2. Conception and Implantation • Conception – also called fertilization – the union of a male sperm cell and a female egg cell • Make a zygote • As the zygote travels through the fallopian tubes – it divides into a ball of many cells (1…2…4…8…) • Implantation – process where the zygote attaches to the uterine wall • Names of a developing baby • Zygote – first few weeks • Embryo – 3rd – 8th week of pregnancy • Fetus – 8th week until delivery

  3. Getting Nutrients and Oxygen to the Embryo • Mother’s and embryo’s blood supply are separate • Materials diffuse from one blood supply to the other through the umbilical cord • Nutrients and oxygen pass from mother to embryo • Wastes leave embryo back to mother’s blood • Tobacco, drugs, and alcohol can also pass to an embryo from the mother

  4. Fetal Development • Time from conception to birth is approximately nine months • Divided into 3, three month periods • Trimesters – 3 month period

  5. 1st Trimester (0-14 weeks) • 0-2 weeks • Zygote may float freely in uterus before implanting • Spinal cord grows faster than the rest of the body • Brain, ears, and arms begin to form • Heart form and begins to beat • 3-8 weeks • At 8 weeks, embryo is about 1 inch long • Mouth, nostrils, eyelids, hands, fingers, feet and toes begin to form • Nervous system begins to respond • Cardiovascular system is fully functional • 9-14 weeks • Fetus develops a human profile • Sex organs, eyelids, fingernails, and toenails develop • By 12 weeks, makes crying motions and may suck its thumb

  6. 2nd Trimester(15-28 weeks) • 15-20 weeks • Fetus can blink • Body begins to grow • Growth of head slows, limbs reach full proportion • Eyebrows and eyelashes develop • Fetus can grasp and kick and becomes active • 21-28 weeks • Can hear • Regular schedule of waking and sleeping • Weight increases rapidly • About 12 inches long and a little over 1 pound • May survive if born after 24 weeks…but requires special care

  7. 3rd Trimester(29-40 weeks) • Uses all 5 senses • Begins to pass water from the bladder • Fetus gains most of its weight during this trimester • Approximately, 266 days after conception, the baby weighs 6-9 pounds and is ready to be born

  8. Stages of Birth • Labor – the final stage of pregnancy in which the uterus contracts and pushes the baby out of the mother’s body

  9. Stage 1: Dilation • Contractions of the uterus cause the cervix to dilate or open • In about 95% of pregnancies, the baby’s head is resting on the cervix • Contractions break the amniotic sac (“water breaks”)

  10. Stage 2: Passage Through Birth Canal • Fully dilated cervix = 10 cm • Baby passes through the birth canal and emerges from the mother’s body • Cries to clear the lungs of the amniotic fluid

  11. Stage 3: Afterbirth • Placenta is still attached to the baby by the umbilical cord • Umbilical cord is cut • Contractions continue – the placenta (afterbirth) is pushed from the mother’s body

  12. Prenatal Care Steps that a pregnant female can take to provide for her own health and the health of her baby

  13. The Health the Fetus • Physical Activity can be beneficial • Substances • Tobacco and Pregnancy • 30% of low birth weigh babies • 14% of premature births • 10% of infant deaths • May affect the growth, mental development, and behavior of her child until 11 years of age • 2nd hand smoke is also harmful • Alcohol and Pregnancy • Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) – a group of alcohol-related birth defects that includes both physical and mental problems • Medicines and Drugs and Pregnancy • Take prescription medicines only under strict doctor’s care • Illegal drugs can cause serious birth defects, premature labor, and miscarriage • Baby can be addicted to the drug when born

  14. Environmental Hazards • Lead • Miscarriages, low birth weight, mental disabilities, and behavioral problems • Smog • Birth defects, low birth weight, premature birth, stillbirth, and infant death • Greatest risk is during the 2nd month of pregnancy • Radiation (X-Rays) • Mental retardation • Cat Litter • Toxoplasmosis (from a parasite found in cat feces) can result in miscarriage, premature labor, and health problems in newborn

  15. Complications During Pregnancy • Miscarriage – the spontaneous expulsion of a fetus that occurs before the twentieth week of a pregnancy • Stillbirth – a dead fetus expelled from the body after the twentieth week of pregnancy • Does not necessarily mean that the mother did something wrong

  16. Ectopic Pregnancy • The zygote implants in the fallopian tube, the abdomen, the ovary, or the cervix • Fertilized egg can’t pass to the uterus • Damaged cilia • Scar tissue • Results from STDs • Can be life-threatening • Treatment – removal of the fetus

  17. Adolescence Period from childhood to adulthood

  18. Secondary Sex Characteristics Females • Breasts develop • Waistline narrows • Hips widen • Body fat increases • Menstruation starts Males • Facial hair appears • Voice deepens • Shoulders broaden • Muscles develop • Hairline begins to recede • In Both • Body hair appears • All permanent teeth gown • Perspiration increases

  19. Mental Changes • The cerebrum – thinking part of the brain continues to develop • Increases memory • Increases cognition – the ability to reason and think out abstract solutions • You can solve problems in more complex ways

  20. Communicable Diseases A disease that is spread from one living thing to another or through the environment

  21. Causes of Communicable Diseases • Pathogen– an organism that causes disease • Types of Pathogens • Virus • Bacteria • Fungi • Protozoans • Rickettsias • Infection – a condition that occurs when pathogens enter the body, multiply, and damage body cells

  22. Transmission • Direct Contact • Touching, biting, kissing, and sexual contact, sneezing and coughing, pregnant woman to child • Indirect Contact • Contaminated objects • Vectors – an organism, such as a tick, that carries and transmits pathogens to humans or other animals • Flies, mosquitoes, and ticks • Water and Food

  23. Viruses • Pieces of genetic material surrounded by a protein coat, smallest of the pathogens • Needs a specific living cell to reproduce – invade others (hosts) • Virus invades a cell (host cell) and takes control of it to make new viruses – new viruses burst from the cell and infect other cells • Viruses usually run their course and are eventually killed by the immune system • Cannot be cured with medication!!! • Treatment • Antibiotics do not work • Over the counter medicines to control symptoms

  24. Types of Viruses • Common Cold • Inflammation of the mucous membranes that line the nose and throat • Symptoms • Runny or stuffy nose, sneezing, sore throat, headache • Treatment – analgesics – to treat symptoms • ” Influenza – “Flu” • Viral infection of the respiratory tract • Symptoms • High fever, chills, dry cough, muscle and joint pain, runny nose, sore throat, extreme fatigue • Treatment– antiviral drugs given as soon as illness arises – proper nutrition and plenty of rest and fluids • Can lead to Pneumonia • Vaccines available

  25. Bacteria • Single-celledmicroorganisms that live almost everywhere on earth • Most are harmless and many are essential for life • Enter the body and multiply through cell division • Treated with antibiotics!!!

  26. Ricettsias • Pathogens that resemble bacteria • Multiply by invading cells of another life form • Enter through bites of insects (fleas, ticks, or lice) • Examples • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (ticks) – flu-like • Malaria (mosquitoes) – flu-like illness • Lymes Disease (ticks) – nervous system • Encephalitis (mosquitoes) – inflammation of the brain

  27. Preventing Communicable Diseases • Wash hands • Handling food properly • Food borne illness • Wash your hands before you handle food, keep surfaces clean, avoid cross contamination, cook food to proper temperatures, chill leftover foods promptly • Other prevention strategies • Eat a balanced diet • Avoid sharing utensils • Avoid unnecessary contact with sick people • Take care of yourself when you are sick • Get vaccinated • Practice abstinence • Manage stress

  28. Physical and Chemical Barriers • Body’s first line of protection • Physical Barriers • Block pathogens from getting into your body • Examples • Skin • Mucous membranes – line openings in your skin – trap pathogens and carry to areas of your body for disposal • Cilia – sweep mucous and pathogens out • Chemical Barriers • Destroy pathogens • Examples • Tears and saliva – contain enzymes • Gastric juice

  29. Inflammatory Response • A reaction to tissue damage caused by injury or infection • Blood vessels near the injury expand to allow more blood flow to the area (bring white blood cells) • Causes swelling and pain (pressure) • Phagocyte – a white blood cell that attacks invading pathogens • Engulf pathogens and destroy them with chemicals • Pus – a collection of dead white blood cells and damaged tissue

  30. Active Immunity • Naturally – immunity develops when your body is exposed to antigens from invading pathogens • Vaccine – a preparation of dead or weakened pathogens that are introduced into the body to stimulate an immune response • Some vaccines need boosters (reminders)

  31. Passive immunity • Receiving antibodies from another person or an animal • Short lived – only lasts weeks to a month • Natural • Passes from a mother to child during pregnancy or while nursing • Artificial • Injection of antibodies produced by an animal or human who is immune to the disease

  32. Importance of Immunization • Protects both you and others • If you are vaccinated…you can’t spread the disease to others • Up-to-date vaccination • Boosters

  33. Vaccines • Live-virus vaccines • Made from pathogens grown under special laboratory conditions • Weakened viruses • EX) Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) and chicken pox vaccines • Killed-virus • Inactivated pathogens • EX) flu shots, hepatitis A, rabies • Toxoids • Inactivated toxins from pathogens – stimulate the production of antibodies • EX) Tetanus • New and second-generation vaccines • EX) hepatitis B – genetically altered yeast cells

  34. Care of the Immune System • Follow a sensible eating plan • Get plenty of rest • Physical activity • Avoid sharing personal items • Avoid tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs • Avoid sexual contact • Keep immunizations up to date