Classification of Matter - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

classification of matter n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Classification of Matter PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Classification of Matter

play fullscreen
1 / 67
Download Presentation
Classification of Matter
397 Views
fawzi
Download Presentation

Classification of Matter

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Classification of Matter

  2. Scientific Method: A systematic approach to ____________ problems.

  3. Matter: Anything that has mass and takes up ____________.

  4. Matter • Atoms are the building blocks of ____________.

  5. Matter • Atoms are the building blocks of matter. • Each element is made of the same kind of atom.

  6. Matter • Atoms are the building blocks of matter. • Each element is made of the same kind of atom. • A compound is made of two or more different kinds of elements.

  7. States of Matter

  8. Classification of Matter

  9. Classification of Matter

  10. Classification of Matter

  11. Classification of Matter

  12. Classification of Matter

  13. Classification of Matter

  14. Classification of Matter

  15. Classification of Matter

  16. Classification of Matter

  17. Classification of Matter

  18. Mixtures and Compounds

  19. Properties and Changes of Matter

  20. Properties of Matter • Physical Properties: • Can be observed ____________ changing a substance into another substance. • Boiling point, density, mass, volume, etc. • Chemical Properties: • Can only be observed when a substance is ____________ into another substance. • Flammability, corrosiveness, reactivity with acid, etc.

  21. Properties of Matter • ____________ Properties: • Independent of the amount of the substance that is present. • Density, boiling point, color, etc. • ____________ Properties: • Dependent upon the amount of the substance present. • Mass, volume, energy, etc.

  22. Changes of Matter • Physical Changes: • Changes in matter that do not change the ____________ of a substance. • Changes of state, temperature, volume, etc. • Chemical Changes: • Changes that result in new ____________. • Combustion, oxidation, decomposition, etc.

  23. Matter Can be separated physically Cannot be separated physically Heterogeneous substances Homogeneous substances Impure Cannot see the parts Can be separated chemically Pure substance Can see the parts Cannot be separated Heterogeneous Mixture Homogeneous Mixture Compound Element Most impure Most pure

  24. Classification of Matter • Now that we have defined chemical and physical properties of matter, we can use that to help us classify it. • One way chemists classify matter is based on its purity.

  25. Classification of Matter • Pure Substance– Matter that has only 1 set of chemical and physical properties. Example: Pure water always has the exact same chemical and physical properties under the same conditions. If water ever tastes different then it isn’t pure water; it fits into our next category.

  26. Classification of Matter • Mixture– Two or more pue substances mixed together. Each substance in the mixture retains its own set of chemical and physical properties. Even though it may look different, it is still copper and zinc. Each metal retains its own properties like melting point.

  27. Classification of Matter • Mixture– Two or more pure substances mixed together. Each substance in the mixture retains its own set of chemical and physical properties. Unlike pure substances, mixtures can always be separated by physical means. How could we separate the copper and zinc back out?

  28. Mixtures • Mixture– Two or more pure substances mixed together. Each substance in the mixture retains its own set of chemical and physical properties. If a sample of sand contains iron and salt, how could you separate them from the other minerals?

  29. Mixtures • Some mixtures are more pure than others. • Heterogeneous mixture – Uneven distribution of substances. (Very impure) - You can see the different parts. Examples: Sand Granite Wood

  30. Mixtures • Some mixtures are more pure than others. • Heterogeneous mixture – Uneven distribution of substances. (Very impure) - You can see the different parts. Examples: Milk Blood

  31. Mixtures • Homogeneous Mixture– Components are evenly mixed. (More pure than heterogeneous) - Cannot see the parts. Salt water contains salt and water, but are mixed all the way to the atomic level , but it can still be separated by physical means. Seawater distillation plant

  32. Pure Substances • Pure substances can also be divided into 2 categories: compounds and elements.

  33. Pure Substances • Compound – Two or more elements chemically bonded together. Examples: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Water (H2O) Salt (NaCl) Sucrose (C12H22O11)

  34. Pure Substances • Compounds have only 1 set of properties. They cannot be separated by any physical process. - Can only be separated by a chemical reaction. Water can be separated into Hydrogen and Oxygen by a process called Electrolysis.

  35. Pure Substances • Elements – Substances made up of only one type of atom. - Cannot be separated by any physical OR chemical process. Examples: Carbon Helium Gold

  36. MATTER yes no Can it be physically separated? MIXTURE PURE SUBSTANCE yes no yes no Is the composition uniform? Can it be chemically decomposed? Homogeneous Mixture (solution) Heterogeneous Mixture Compound Element Colloids Suspensions Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem

  37. Both elements and compounds have a definite makeup and definite properties. Compounds two or more kinds of atoms that are bonded Mixtures two or more substances that are physically mixed Elements only one kind of atom; atoms are bonded it the element is diatomic or polyatomic two or more kinds of and substance with definite makeup and properties Packard, Jacobs, Marshall, Chemistry Pearson AGS Globe, page (Figure 2.4.1)

  38. MATTER yes no Can it be physically separated? MIXTURE PURE SUBSTANCE yes no yes no Is the composition uniform? Can it be chemically decomposed? Homogeneous Mixture (solution) Heterogeneous Mixture Compound Element Colloids Suspensions Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem

  39. Both elements and compounds have a definite makeup and definite properties. Compounds two or more kinds of atoms that are bonded Mixtures two or more substances that are physically mixed Elements only one kind of atom; atoms are bonded it the element is diatomic or polyatomic two or more kinds of and substance with definite makeup and properties Packard, Jacobs, Marshall, Chemistry Pearson AGS Globe, page (Figure 2.4.1)

  40. Matter Flowchart Examples: • graphite • pepper • sugar (sucrose) • paint • soda element hetero. mixture compound hetero. mixture solution homo. mixture Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem

  41. Pure Substances • Element • composed of identical atoms • EX: copper wire, aluminum foil Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem

  42. Pure Substances • Compound • composed of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio • properties differ from those of individual elements • EX: table salt (NaCl) Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem

  43. Pure Substances Law of Definite Composition • A given compound always contains the same, fixed ratio of elements. Law of Multiple Proportions • Elements can combine in different ratios to form different compounds. Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem

  44. Carbon, C Oxygen, O Carbon monoxide, CO Carbon, C Oxygen, O Oxygen, O Carbon dioxide, CO2 Pure Substances For example… Two different compounds, each has a definite composition. Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem

  45. Mixtures Variable combination of two or more pure substances. Heterogeneous Homogeneous Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem

  46. Tyndall Effect Mixtures Solution • homogeneous • very small particles • no Tyndall effect • particles don’t settle • EX: rubbing alcohol Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem

  47. Mixtures Colloid • heterogeneous • medium-sized particles • Tyndall effect • particles don’t settle • EX: milk Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem

  48. Mixtures Suspension • heterogeneous • large particles • Tyndall effect • particles settle • EX: fresh-squeezed lemonade Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem

  49. Mixtures Examples: • mayonnaise • muddy water • fog • saltwater • Italian salad dressing colloid suspension colloid solution suspension Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem

  50. Specific / General Order / Disorder Classification of Matter Materials Homogeneous Heterogeneous Substance Homogeneous mixture Heterogeneous mixture Element Compound Solution Mixture Smoot, Smith, Price, Chemistry A Modern Course, 1990, page 43