OBJECTIVES The students will: • Discuss the scientific method. • Describe the primary sizeup factors and determine their impact on objectives and strategies. • Analyze the command sequence action planning cycle.
USE THESCIENTIFIC METHOD • Observe the facts. • Test the accuracy of the facts through observation. • If the facts are accurate, logical hypotheses can be deduced. • If hypothesis is proved true, outcomes may be predicted in similar situations. • These hypotheses are called principles.
PRIMARY FACTORS CHART Introduce the Primary Factors Chart
PRIMARY FACTORS (SIZEUP) Column 1: The conditions and elements that should be recognized and evaluated on arrival and during operations.
INCIDENT OBJECTIVES Column 2: • Safe Removal of Occupants:When life hazard for occupants is the limiting or strategic factor. • Contain and Control Fire to Room/Building of Origin: No life hazard for occupants, and fire is considered to be controllable by a direct or indirect attack. • Contain, Control, and Limit Fire in Exposures:No life hazard for occupants and the situation is temporarily uncontrollable.
INCIDENT STRATEGIES Column 3: • Rescue • Exposure protection • Confine/Extinguish • Overhaul • Ventilation • Salvage
MAKING DECISIONS Primary Factors OBJECTIVES Strategic Activities
PRIMARY FACTORS Evaluating the effect of the primary factors on incident strategies.
LIMITS • LIFE HAZARD FOR OCCUPANTS Risks to firefighters, ranging from merely unusual to extreme, may be warranted. • NO LIFE HAZARD FOR OCCUPANTS Firefighters are never to be jeopardized unnecessarily.
LIFE HAZARD • What effect would "status of occupants" have on your strategy? • What effect would "firefighter safety" have on your strategy?
LOCATION OF FIRE ON ARRIVAL • Fire building • Exposures What effect would "location of fire on arrival" have on the strategy?
EXTENT OF FIRE AFTER ARRIVAL • Fire building • Exposures What effect would "extent of fire after arrival" have on your strategy?
CONSTRUCTION • Residential • Commercial What is the effect of "ordinary construction" on objectives?
CONSTRUCTION (cont'd) What is the effect of "wood-frame construction"on objectives?
CONSTRUCTION (cont'd) What is the effect of "fire-resistive construction" on objectives?
CONSTRUCTION (cont'd) What effect would "non-combustible construction" have on your strategy?
CONSTRUCTION (cont'd) What is the effect of "buildings under construction" on objectives?
CONSTRUCTION (cont'd) What is the effect of "buildings under demolition" on objectives?
OCCUPANCY What effect would "occupancy" have on your strategies? • Type of occupancy • Contents of structure (fire load) • Exposures
HEIGHT • Fire building • Exposures What effect would "height of building" have on your strategy?
AREA • Fire building • Exposures What effect would "area of building" have on your strategy?
STRUCTURAL COLLAPSE • Fire building • Exposures • Collapse zone • Apparatus placement What effect would "structural collapse" have on your strategy?
WEATHER What effect would "weather" have on your strategy? • Low temperatures • High temperatures • Rain • Wind
RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS What effect would "resource requirements" have on your strategy? • Water • Apparatus • Equipment • Personnel • Special extinguishing agents
AUXILIARY APPLIANCES What effect would "auxiliary appliances" have on your strategy? • Sprinkler systems • Pressurization of stairways or other building areas
TOPOGRAPHY What effect would "topography" have on your strategy? • Steeply graded streets/roads • Leveling portable ladders on grades • Congested streets/roads • Snow/Ice covered streets/roads • .
EXPLOSIONS • Smoke explosions • Bomb explosions What effect would "explosions" have on your strategy?
DURATION OF OPERATIONS What effect would "duration of operations" have on your strategy? • Long-duration incidents are difficult to deal with. • May indicate heavy involvement and structural collapse. • Maximizes the exposure hazard. • Consider relief for personnel.
COMMAND SEQUENCE CYCLE Critical factors of incident operations are often overlooked (or not given enough emphasis). • Poor use of resources • Inappropriate strategies • Safety problems • High incident costs • Lower effectiveness This can result in:
COMMAND SEQUENCE CYCLE (cont'd) Consists of six sequential steps: 1. Understanding the situation 2. Establishing incident objectives 3. Developing strategy 4. Directing tactical and resource assignments 5. Implementing the plan 6. Evaluating the plan
COMMAND SEQUENCE (cont'd) Sizeup
UNDERSTANDING THE SITUATION Involves knowing: • What has occurred • If the incident will expand (or get smaller) • Present (and future) resource and organizational needs
COMMAND SEQUENCE Sizeup Problem ID
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION The analysis and comparison of incident primary factors and cues are the basis for problem identification.
COMMAND SEQUENCE Sizeup Problem ID Establish Objectives Develop Strategy Select Tactics