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Transistors

Transistors

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Transistors

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  1. Transistors • History • Transistor Types • BJT: A bipolar (junction) transistor is a three-terminal electronic device constructed of doped semiconductor material and may be used in amplifying or switching applications • FET :The field-effect transistor (FET) relies on an electric field to control the shape and hence the conductivity of a channel of one type of charge carrier in a semiconductor material • Power transistors

  2. What is a Transistor? • A Transistor is an electronic device • composed of layers of a semiconductor • material which regulates current or • voltage flow and acts as a switch or gate • for electronic circuit.

  3. History of the Transistor • John Pierce –supervised the Bell Labs team which built the first transistor (1947) • First Solid State Transistor – (1951) Gordon K. Teal (left) and Morgan Sparks at Bell Laboratories, 1951 • Akio Morita, who founded a new company named Sony Electronics that mass-produced tiny transistorized radios (1961)

  4. Processor development followed Moore’s Law

  5. Applications • Switching • Amplification • Oscillating Circuits • Sensors

  6. Composed of N and P-type Semiconductors • N-type Semiconductor has an excess of electrons • – Doped with impurity with more valence electrons than silicon P-type Semiconductor has a deficit of electrons (Holes) • – Doped with impurity with less valence electrons than silicon

  7. P-N Junction (Basic diode): • - Bringing P and N Semiconductors in contact • P Type N Type • - Creation of a Depletion Zone

  8. Reverse Biased => No Current Forward Biased => Current • Applying –Voltage to Anode increases • Barrier Voltage & Inhibits Current Flow • • Applying Voltage to Cathode • Barrier Voltage to Anode allows current flow

  9. Types Of Transistors NPN: transistor where the majority current carriers are electrons The majority current carriers in the PNP transistor are holes

  10. Transistor Operation

  11. California Test Questions • A transistor circuit is used as an amplifier. When a signal is applied to the input of the transistor, the output signal is • A a smaller amplitude. • B an equal amplitude. • C a larger amplitude. • D zero amplitude. C: The collector and emitter will amplify the output signal from the Bias input.

  12. California Test Questions • A transistor is classified as a semiconductor because: • A the transistor conducts electricity. • B the transistor increases the amplitude. • C the transistor increases the frequency. • D intentionally introducing impurities into an extremely pure silicon or germanium. • D intentionally introducing impurities into an extremely pure silicon or germanium.

  13. Summary • Transistors are composed of three parts – a base, a collector, and an emitter . • Semi-conductive materials are what make the transistor possible . • There are two main types of transistors-junction transistors and field effect transistors. • Field effect transistor has only two layers of semiconductor material, one on top of the other