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  1. Transistors By Virus

  2. Safety • Remove all jewelry and watches • Wear safety glasses • Unplug power plug when placing hands inside live equipment. • Wear static wrist strap when troubleshooting sensitive equipment such as computers. Honestly, I never do but for static electricity if you don’t then you could damage parts.

  3. General configuration • A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. • The transistor is the main building block “element” of electronics • There are two types of standard transistors, NPN and PNP, with different circuit symbols. The letters refer to the layers of semiconductor material used to make the transistor. Most transistors used today are NPN because this is the easiest type to make from silicon. This page is mostly about NPN transistors and if you are new to electronics it is best to start by learning how to use these first. • It is a semiconductor device and it comes in two general types: the Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) and the Field Effect Transistor (FET). • The leads are labeled base (B), collector (C) and emitter (E).Common uses are logic gates, music amplifies, and computers (memory uses this VSLI process)

  4. Equipment needed Qty--Name • 5--VDC Power supply • 2--1K OHM resistors • 1--2N3904 NPN transistor • 1--Digital Multi meter (DMM)

  5. What type of transistor configuration is this? • PNP • NPN • BJT • OPAMP • Diode

  6. Design: Measure/analyze test points 1 & 2 and submit results. Failure: What would the output be at collector-emitter if Q2 was open? Reengineer a new design.

  7. Question: Measure/analyze test points 1 & 2 and submit results TP1 TP2 “TP” means Test points

  8. Questions • What is the voltage drop across a single silicon transistor? • What would you expect to see across your multimeter (DMM)? • Why is your leads placed between the B-E or base–emitter junction? • If you have .3Volts across a Germanium style transistor will that saturate it? • What similar characteristic does a transistor function as?

  9. Saturated current flows in this direction from collector to emitter junction A .6 or .7 Voltage drop across silicon style transistor will saturate or turn the transistor on so current can flow like a simple switch

  10. Explain how you would fix this? Why does this say 775.596mV instead of .775596V?

  11. Tektronix is the preferred o-scope I use. I have always like this brand and find the digital scopes better than the old analog. Get used to using the Tektronix because you will see them often. oscope

  12. What is my reading?

  13. What is each block represent? Each mark represent 1 volt if CH1 was set to 5V increments? 1V 1V 1V 1V However, in our example each mark represents .2V. Now looking that our line is on the 3rd mark to calculate volts you multiply .2 x 3 = .6volts. (.6volts is our answer) 1V Total = 5VDC

  14. Questions • What is the voltage drop across a Darlington silicon transistor? Hint we know have two transistors? • What would you expect to see across your multimeter (DMM)? • Why is your leads placed between the B-E or base–emitter junction?

  15. Answer next time…More to come