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Introduction. Objectives.

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  1. Introduction Objectives There are confined spaces in many Oregon industrial workplaces. OR-OSHA is concerned that many of these confined spaces pose unique problems due to their contents and/or configuration. Some confined spaces, for example, pose entrapment hazards for entrants, while others restrict air circulation so that hazardous atmospheres may accumulate. Confinement itself can increase the risk of injury or death by making employees work closer to hazards than they would otherwise. Accident investigators have long recognized and directed employer and employee attention to the special dangers of confined spaces. This class introduces you to the basic requirements and procedures involved with permit-required confined spaces as detailed in Oregon Administrative Rule 437, Division 2/J, 29 CFR 1910.146, Permit-Required Confined Spaces. This information is vitally important to all those who work in or have responsibility for those who work in permit-required confined spaces (PRCS). Please feel free to ask questions at any time. If you have experience in confined space operations, please participate so that we might all benefit from that experience! This class provides the following information: 1. Criteria for confined spaces and permit-required confined spaces. 2. Hazards which may exist in permit-required confined spaces. 3. Steps in developing a permit-required confined space program. Application of alternative procedures Permit system Rescue and emergency service requirements. 4. Training requirements. Please Note: This material, or any other material used to inform employers of compliance requirements of Oregon OSHA standards through simplification of the regulations should not be considered a substitute for any provisions of the Oregon Safe Employment Act or for any standards issued by Oregon OSHA. This workbook is intended for classroom use only.

  2. Why a Permit-Required Confined Space Program? Asphyxiation in Oklahoma In Oklahoma, a three-person work crew ruptured a water line while boring through a street to prepare the way for extended water service. The workers were instructed to close off three valves in order to cut off water flow to the damaged pipe. The workmen had no personal protective equipment or training for confined space entry. They were aware of a company policy which required atmospheric testing before entry, but they decided that shutting off the water was more important. They had no trouble with the first valve pit. However, the employee who entered the second pit, which had not been opened in three years, soon called for help. The crew leader entered the pit to assist the initial entrant but was overcome. The third crewman realized that entering the pit was unsafe and went for help. Firefighters equipped with self-contained breathing apparatus were on the scene within a few minutes. They entered the second valve pit, discharged oxygen from cylinders to increase the oxygen level and retrieved the victims. Both victims died shortly afterward, asphyxiated due to oxygen deprivation. The accident report noted that the oxygen level at a valve pit two miles downstream from the scene of the accident was only three percent! Explosion in Puerto Rico Workers at a refinery in Puerto Rico were cleaning a large storage tank. Since it had last been cleaned, the tank had been used at various times to store gasoline, gas oil, and light and heavy crude oils. The employer expected that the tank would contain residues from these liquids. The procedures, tools, and all other equipment to be used for entry were prepared by the parent company, not by the refinery. Under the terms of the entry permit, workers were required to use air-supplying respirators, lifelines, explosive-proof lighting, and were also required to test the atmosphere for flammable conditions before and during entry. However, no one at the refinery had been made accountable for compliance with the permit. Employee accounts indicate that refinery management originally followed permit procedures but largely ignored them the day of the incident. For example, even though it was known that the work could generate a flammable atmosphere and that only explosion-proof lighting was allowed where a flammable atmosphere could exist, only two of the twelve lamps illuminating the inside of the tank were explosion-proof; no lifelines were available; and no atmospheric monitoring was done. Five employees were in the tank when it exploded and burned briefly. The workers outside the tank were unable to help them. The fire burned out in just seconds, but by then four of the workers were dead. The fifth entrant died of massive respiratory injuries several days later. Town mourns farmers killed in manure pit Menominee, Mich. - Five farmers who died trying to save one another in a manure pit were buried Saturday as the family grappled with running the 100-year-old dairy. The five were overcome by methane fumes Wednesday morning trying to save each other at the Theuerkauf family dairy barn in Menominee County. Sheriff's officials believe Hofer, a farm employee, went into the pit first - perhaps to clear a drain - and collapsed after breathing the fumes, which are produced by manure. Each one followed to rescue the man before, until all had died. There was about a foot of manure in the 12-foot deep pit. Rescuers account for over 60% of all confined space fatalities!

  3. A quick reference to the Permit-Required Confined Space Standard No Does workplace contain PRCS? (b) Consult other OSHA Standards. Stop Yes Inform Employees. (c)(2) No Will PRCS be entered? Prevent employee entry. (c)(3) Do task from outside of space. Yes Yes Inform contractor. (c)(8) Contractor obtains information. (c)(9) Will Contractors enter? No No Both contractor and host employees enter. Will host employees enter? Yes Coordinate entry operations. (c)(8), (d)(11) Prevent unauthorized entry. Yes No Prevent unauthorized entry. Stop No Does space have known or potential hazards? Not a PRCS. Consult other OSHA standards. Yes Yes Can hazards be eliminated? May reclassify space as non-PRCS. (c)(7) Stop1 No Can space be maintained safe using continuous forced air only? Yes Stop1 Space may be entered under (c)(5). No Prepare for entry using permit procedures. Permit not valid until conditions meet permit specifications. No Verify acceptable entry conditions. Yes Issue permit. Maintain acceptable entry conditions throughout entry. No Emergency exists (prohibited condition). Entrants evacuated, entry aborted. Call rescuers if needed. Permit is void. Reevaluate program to correct/prevent prohibited condition. No entry until program corrections completed. May require a new program. Yes Entry tasks completed. Return and cancel permit. Audit permit program 1 Spaces may have to be evacuated and re-evaluated if hazards arise during entry.

  4. Evaluate Your Workplace 1. Does the workplace contain confined spaces? A confined space is... • Large enough for whole _____ to enter and work, and • Has ________ entry or exit, and • Is not _________ for continuous occupancy. What is meant by “limited or restricted entry and exit”? What is meant by “not designed for continuous occupancy”? 1910.146 (b) Definitions Non-permit required confined spaces are confined spaces that do not contain or, with respect to atmospheric hazards, have the potential to contain any hazard capable of causing death or serious physical harm. Examples: Tanks Degreasers Pits Vats Trenches Silos Boilers Tubs Manholes Vaults Hoppers Vessels Bins Pipes 2. Does the workplace contain permit-required confined spaces? A permit-required confined space is a confined space that contains one or more of the following characteristics ... • Contains or potentially contains a hazardous a__________, or • Has potential for e__________, or • Has dangerous c_____________, or • Contains any other serious safety or health ________. If not a “confined space”, other rules may still apply such as Hazard Communication, Lockout/Tagout, Personal Protective Equipment, Welding, etc.

  5. Evaluating Permit-Required Confined Space Hazards 1. Oxygen Level {too high or too low?} Hazardous Atmospheres It’s the most dangerous atmospheric hazard because you can’t see it or feel it. 23.5% and above = High 20.8 - 21% = Normal 19.5% and below = Deficient Atmospheric conditions in a confined space can change greatly within a few minutes. Why would toomuch oxygen be hazardous? How could you have toomuch oxygen? What are some causes or indications of possibly having a deficient oxygen atmosphere inside a space? Dangers of Low Oxygen Levels 16 - 12% O2 in Air Deep breathing, fast heartbeat, poor attention, poor thinking, poor coordination 14 - 10% O2 in Air Faulty judgment, intermittent breathing, rapid fatigue (possibly causing heart damage), very poor coordination, lips turning blue 10% or less O2 in Air Nausea (vomiting), loss of movement, loss of consciousness followed by death Less than 6% O2 in Air Spasmodic breathing, convulsive movement, death in approx. eight minutes Coma in 40 seconds 4% - 6% O2 in Air

  6. 2. Flammable/Explosive Gases,Vapors, or Mists Hazardous if it exceeds 10% of its lower flammable limit (LFL) Lower flammable limit (LFL), or lower explosive limit (LEL), is the lowest concentration of air-fuel mixture at which a gas or vapor can ignite. Upper flammable limit (UFL), or upper explosive limit (UEL), is the highest concentration of air-fuel mixture that can be ignited. Non-Flammable Region Upper Flammable Limit (UFL) Vapor Pressure Curve Flammable Region Lower Flammable Limit (LFL) Non-Flammable Region Vapor Conc. in Air 10% LFL Flash Point Temperature Vapor pressure, temperature diagram shows the relationship among upper and lower flammable (explosive) limits, flammable and non-flammable regions, flashpoint, and vapor pressure curve. This diagram shows what happens to a vapor/air mixture as concentrations and temperature vary. • Check your material safety data sheets or other resources for the chemical’s LFL & UFL! • 10% of the LFL is used because a space may have pockets of higher fuel concentration. Also, a space may contain a flammable which is lower than its LFL (too lean) but if more fuel is added, the concentration of fuel may quickly reach its flammable range. Furthermore, a space may contain a flammable which is above its UFL (too rich) but when ventilated and diluted, the concentration of fuel may be lowered to its flammable range. Ignition Airborne Combustible Dust Explosive when concentration is between the LEL & UEL! What are some sources of fuel (gas, vapor, dust)? Oxygen Fuel

  7. 3. Toxic Substances Air Contaminants Dusts - Generated by crushing solids. Fumes - Small particles created by condensation from vapor state, especially volatized metals. Mists - Suspended liquid particles formed by condensation from gaseous state or by dispersion of liquids. Smoke - Aerosol mixture from incomplete combustion of organic matter. Vapors - Gaseous forms of materials that are liquids or solids at room temperature. Many solvents generate vapors. Gases - Materials that do not normally exist as solids or liquids at room temperature, such as carbon monoxide and ammonia. • Hazardous if they exceed doses or permissible • exposure limits(PEL) published in: • OR-OSHA Division 2 Subdivisions G & Z • Refer to your material safety data sheets for chemical-specific toxicity characteristics, health hazards, reactivity hazards, etc. • OR-OSHA’s Resource Center has access to thousands of MSDSs! • Other sources of exposure limits include: • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards {http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npg.html} • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) for Threshold Limit Values (TLV) • {www.acgih.org} • Permissible • Exposure Limit (PPM) Substance Carbon Dioxide 5,000 Carbon Monoxide 50 Hydrogen Sulfide 20 Methane 1,000 Nitric Oxide 25 Oxygen diflouride 0.05 Phosgene (carbonyl chloride) 0.1 Sulfur Dioxide 5 Stoddard Solvent 200 What are some other toxic substances?

  8. Engulfment Engulfment The surrounding and effective capture of a person by a liquid or finely divided (flowable) solid substance that can be aspirated to cause death by filling or plugging the respiratory system or that can exert enough force on the body to cause death by strangulation, constriction, or crushing. Can an engulfment hazard be isolated? Isolation means the process by which a permit space is removed from service and completely protected against the release of energy and material into the space. Isolating the confined space can include: • Locking out all sources of energy • Misaligning or removing sections of pipe, lines, or ducts • Blanking or blinding lines • Double block and bleeding lines • Blocking, securing, or disconnecting mechanical energy Hazardous Configuration Hazardous Configuration The permit space has an internal configuration such that an entrant can be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor that slopes downward and tapers to smaller cross-section. The best practice of controlling this hazard is eliminating the hazardous configuration by redesign or installing an effective, permanent barrier or guard to prevent a worker from falling and becoming trapped.For example, the use of personal fall protection would not eliminate a fall hazard but rather act as a form of hazard control.

  9. Any Other Recognized Serious Safety or Health Hazard Energized Electrical Equipment Unguarded Mechanical Equipment Biohazards Noise Radiation Any Others? Once you have evaluated and identified the permit-required confined spaces at your workplace, inform employees through signs and/or other equally effective means. Note: Signs, or other equally effective means of informing, are required even if employees will not enter.

  10. Permit-Required Confined Space Entry How is PRCS “entry” defined? When any part of the body breaks the plane of the opening in a permit required confined space. If permit-required confined spaces will not be entered, you must still take all measures to prevent entry! How? Responsibility When contractors enter your permit spaces: Employer • Ensure compliance with permit space program • Hazards of the permit space • Precautions and procedures • Coordinate entry operations (if conducted) • Debrief when completed (hazards found or created) Contractor • Obtain information about permit space hazards & entry operations • Coordinate entry operations (if conducted) • Brief employer on permit space program being used • Debrief employer on hazards confronted or created What does this basically involve?

  11. Quick Quiz (actually a recap)! The three characteristics of a confined space are: • Large enough for whole _____ to enter and work, and • Has ________ entry or exit, and • Is not _________ for continuous occupancy. A permit-required confined space is a confined space plus one or more of the following four characteristics: • Contains or potentially contains a hazardous a______________, or • Has potential for e__________, or • Has dangerous c_____________, or • Contains any other serious safety or health _______. What is basically involved when using contractors? S_____ I____________! What are the hazardous atmospheres as discussed in this standard? Hazardous 1. O______ levels 2. F___________ levels 3. T______ levels Name one other recognized serious safety or health hazard: Name one cause or indication of a suspected oxygen deficient atmosphere: Where can you learn specific hazardous characteristics of chemicals? A. The chemical’s MSDS B. National Public Radio C. Label on container Name an engulfment hazard: What is hazardous configuration?

  12. When your Employees enter Permit-Required Confined Spaces 1. Can the hazard(s) which made the space a permit space be eliminated? If YES The space can be reclassified as a nonpermit-required space. This is when the space has no actual or potential atmospheric hazards and when all other hazards (i.e. engulfment, configuration, noise, etc.) are eliminated without entering the space. If it’s necessary to enter the permit space to eliminate the hazards, the entry must be in full compliance with the permit-required confined space standard. There must be documentation detailing that the hazards were eliminated. The certification must contain the date, location of the space, and signature of the person certifying and must be available to all entrants or their representative. If hazards arise during entry into a reclassified space, the entrant must exit immediately and the space must be reevaluated! • If NO Prepare for permit entry or consider another question… • 2. Is the only hazard of the permit space an actual or potential atmospheric hazard? • If NO Entry made under the permit system only. • If YES You can follow the alternative (c)(5) procedures! • Before we discuss these (c)(5) procedures: • Control of the atmospheric hazard through forced air ventilation does not constitute elimination of the hazard. • When following these (c)(5) procedures exclusively, the employer is not required to develop a permit entry system, establish an entry team, or provide a rescue system. Of course, these elements are required when entering permit spaces through the permit system. Note: Telecommunications workers have specific entry procedures in OAR 437 Div 2/R.

  13. When your Employees enter Permit-Required Confined Spaces The alternative (c)(5) procedures are allowed when... • Verification is made that using continuous forced air ventilation is safe • Monitoring and inspection data supports the atmospheric hazard is the only hazard and the forced air ventilation is effective • Data is documented and made available to entrants • Remember - if entry must be made to conduct initial monitoring and inspection, full compliance with the standard must be met. And once the above are met…. • Ensure safety before removing a cover and guard opening immediately • Test internal atmosphere (O,F,T) - observation available to entrant • Continuous forced air ventilation • Atmosphere periodically tested - observation available to entrant • Evacuate immediately if necessary and evaluate what went wrong • Verify these procedures were conducted through a written certification • The certification must contain the date, location of the space, and the signature of the person making the verification. This certification must be made before entry and made available to the entrant or his/her representative. More on the Alternative (c)(5) Procedures... • …and more on continuous forced air ventilation (FAV): • No entry until FAV has eliminated any hazardous atmosphere • Direct FAV to ventilate immediate work area and areas where the entrant will likely be (be aware of pockets within the space) • FAV must continue until all workers have left the space • FAV must have clean source • FAV must not increase the hazards in the space These procedures must be followed to a T

  14. When your Employees enter Permit-Required Confined Spaces Ventilating Confined Spaces Not Recommended Recommended Can natural ventilation be used? Is purging a space exclusively with an inert gas considered adequate ventilation? • Ventilation Equipment • Blowers & fansprovide mechanical dilution ventilation. Be sure the blower is appropriately sized, explosion-proof, and its intake is placed far enough away from any source of contamination - like an exhaust pipe on a vehicle! • A space under positive pressure will eventually expel the contaminant through an opening but how long will it take? That’s the question. • Localized exhaust ventilation is better suited to capture fumes (welding), dust, and chemical contaminants. Remember, ventilation must be continuous during entry!

  15. When your Employees enter Permit-Required Confined Spaces Air Monitoring Equipment Initially and during entry. Test for:(1) Oxygen; (2) Flammables; and (3) Toxins. Detector Tubes • Sealed glass tubes • Crystals react with airborne chemicals • Reaction results in color change • Specific for the substance of concern Gas Detection Instruments • Sensors measure concentrations • Results in a meter or digital reading; alarms • Portable multi-gas instruments • Accurate The individual conducting the atmospheric testing must be competent in the actual use (placement, space stratification, etc.), maintenance, limitations (cross-sensitivity & interference of chemicals), calibration, and proper selection of the appropriate instrument. Be sure to read the manufacturer's specifications. Sampling Methane: 0.55 Ammonia: 0.59 Carbon Monoxide: 0.96 Nitrogen: 0.97 Air: 1.0 Hydrogen Sulfide: 1.2 Carbon Dioxide: 1.5 Gasoline: 3- 4 Jet Fuel, JP-8: 4.7 Lighter than air gases Heavier than air gases

  16. When your Employees enter Permit-Required Confined Spaces The entry permit system... An entry permit system must be established when spaces cannot be reclassified or alternative procedures cannot be used. The permit system simply ensures that all means, practices, and procedures necessary for safe permit space entry has been conducted. The completed permit must be made available to the entrants or their authorized representatives by posting or other effective means. The duration of the permit must not exceed the time required to accomplish the identified task. The permit must be immediately canceled when the entry operations have been completed or a condition not allowed under the entry permit arises in or around the permit space. Cancelled permits must be retained for one year to assist in evaluating the permit space program. Any problems during entry must be noted on the respective permit so this annual review can be effective! • The intent of this permit system is to manage your permit-required confined space program. The items on the permit address the components of your written plan to ensure safety and health of all involved! • What is the written plan? • The measures implement to prevent unauthorized entry • The identification & evaluation of all permit space hazards prior to entry • The development & implementation of safe entry operations • Providing and maintaining all necessary equipment (PPE, monitors, etc.) • Evaluating permit space conditions before & during entry operations • Providing at least one attendant & developing procedures for multiple spaces • Designating and training all persons who have active roles • Developing and implementing rescue & emergency procedures • Developing and implementing the entry permit procedures (issue, use, cancel) • Coordinating multi-employer entry procedures • Developing procedures for concluding the entry (closing off the space) • The review & evaluation of entry operations during the year (as needed) • The annual permit space program review using the historic permits What should be your goal of this written plan?

  17. When your Employees enter Permit-Required Confined Spaces The entry permit system... The Permit! The entry permit must document: 1. Permit space to be entered; 2. Purpose of the entry; 3. Date & duration of the entry permit; 4. Authorized entrants; 5. Attendants; 6. Entry supervisor and place for signature; 7. Hazards of the permit space; 8. Isolation measures - hazard controls (purging, ventilating, etc.); 9. The acceptable entry conditions; 10. Test results (initial/periodic) with initials/name of tester & time; 11. Rescue/emergency services available and means to summon; 12. Communication procedures between entrant and attendant; 13. All necessary equipment (PPE, Testing/Communication equipment, etc.); 14. Other necessary information; 15. Any additional permits (hot work, etc.).

  18. When your Employees enter Permit-Required Confined Spaces The Attendant Remember! The permit is not valid until all conditions are met. The entry team and their roles... The Entry Supervisor • Knows the hazard(s), symptoms, and consequences! • Verifies the permit by determining if acceptable entry conditions exist • Authorizes entry • Oversees entry operations • Terminates entry • Verifies rescue services • Removes unauthorized individuals • Serves as attendant (if necessary) • Knows the hazard(s), symptoms, and consequences! • Aware of potential behavioral effects • Monitors entrants & maintains count • Monitors hazards and activities in and outside of the permit space • Remains outside entry point • Communicates with entrant(s) • Controls entry point • Summons rescuers • Initiates/performs non-entry rescue if required The Entrant • Knows the hazard(s), symptoms, and consequences! • Uses equipment properly • Communicates regularly with the attendant • If the unexpected occurs - alert the attendant • Exits immediately if hazard(s) develops The entrant(s) and/or their authorized representative must be given the opportunity to observe the atmospheric testing and completion of the permit.

  19. Equipment for Permit-Required Confined Space Entry • Ventilating • Testing and monitoring • Personal protection (PPE) • Communication • Lighting • Barriers • Isolating devices Respirators may be required to enter a confined space safely. Respirators must be worn to enter a space with an oxygen deficiency or toxic chemical levels above the PEL. A supplied air respirator is required for oxygen deficiency or toxic chemical levels that are immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH). An air-purifying respirator (respirators that filter contaminated air) cannot be used in these atmospheres. Employees must have complete training on the proper use of respirators. Employees must also be medically evaluated to make sure they can safely wear respirators. Please refer to OR-OSHA Div 2/Sub I 29 CFR 1910.134 for more details. Rescue and Emergency Services {more on pp. J-58 & J-79 in Appendix} Three options to permit-required confined space rescue 1. Arrange for rescue service from an outside source. Evaluate their ability to respond in a timely manner considering the hazard(s) evaluated and proficiency with rescue-related tasks and equipment. 2. Arrange for your own employees to provide rescue. Provide necessary PPE and training in the PPE; training in their assigned rescue duties; training in first aid & CPR; practice simulated permit space rescues at least annually in respective spaces using manikins or actual persons. 3. Provide for non-entry rescue. Provide necessary retrieval equipment such as a full body harness and a mechanical device when permit space depths are more than five feet. If a chemical is involved during an emergency, provide the necessary MSDS immediately!

  20. Training All employees who work in and around permit-required confined spaces must be trained in order to acquire the understanding, knowledge, and skills necessary to safely perform their assigned duties. • Training must be provided to each affected employee: • before their first assigned duty • before there is a change in assigned duties • whenever there is a change in permit space operations and the affected employee(s) has not previously been trained on the hazard(s) • whenever there is reason to believe there are deviations from the permit space entry procedures or inadequacies in the employee's knowledge or use of the procedures • Training must establish worker proficiency and include new or revised procedures to ensure compliance with permit space standards. Be sure to include a demonstration! • The content of the training must include: • Nature of the hazards • Procedures to take when exposed to hazards • Use of rescue and emergency equipment • Verify the appropriate training was completed through a written certification. The certification must contain each employee’s name, the signature(s) of the trainers, and the date(s) of the training. Should you include more on the training record?

  21. Appendices

  22. CONFINED SPACE AND PRCS RECOGNITION CHECKLIST • PART I • ____ 1. Is the space large enough so an employee can bodily enter and perform work? • ____ 2. Does the space have limited or restricted means of entry and exit? • ____ 3. Is the space not designed for continuous occupancy? • If the answer is yes to all items in Part I, continue to Part II. If the answer is no to any of the items in Part I, the space is not considered a confined space. • PART II • ____ 1. Does the space contain or potentially contain a hazardous atmosphere? • ____ 2. Does the space contain any chemicals or chemical residues? • ____ 3. Does the space contain any flammable/combustible substances? • ____ 4. Does the space contain or potentially contain any decomposing organic matter? • ____ 5. Does the space have any pipes which bring chemicals into it? • ____ 6. Does the space have any materials that can trap or potentially trap, engulf, or drown an entrant? • ____ 7. Is vision obscured by dust at 5 feet or less? • ____ 8. Does the space contain any mechanical equipment servicing the space? • ____ 9. Does the space have converging walls, sloped floors or tapered floor to smaller cross-sections which could trap or asphyxiate an entrant? • ____ 10. Does the tank or vessel contain rusted interior surfaces? • ____ 11. Does the space contain thermal hazards (e.g. cold, hot)? • ____ 12. Does the space contain excessive noise levels which could interfere with communication with an attendant? • ____ 13. Does the space present any slip, trip, or fall hazards? • ____ 14. Are there any operations conducted near the space opening which could present a hazard to the entrant? • ____ 15. Are there any hazards from falling objects?

  23. ____ 16. Are there lines under pressure servicing the space? • ____ 17. Are cleaning solvents or paints going to be used in the space? • ____ 18. Is welding, cutting, brazing, riveting, scraping, or sanding going to be performed in the space? • ____ 19. Is electrical equipment located in or required to be used in the space? • ____ 20. Does the space have poor natural ventilation which would allow an atmospheric hazard to develop? • ____ 21. Are there any corrosives which could irritate the eyes in the space? • ____ 22. Are there any conditions which could prevent any entrant’s self rescue from the space? • ____ 23. Are there any substances used in the space which have acute hazards? • ____ 24. Is mechanical ventilation needed to maintain a safe environment? • ____ 25. Is air monitoring necessary to ensure the space is safe for entry due to a potential hazardous atmosphere? • ____ 26. Will entry be made into a diked area where the dike is 5 feet or more in height? • ____ 27. Are residues going to be scraped off the interior surfaces of the vessel? • ____ 28. Are non-sparking tools required to remove residues? • ____ 29. Does the space restrict mobility to the extent that it could trap an irritant? • ____ 30. Is respiratory protection required because of a hazardous atmosphere? • ____ 31. Does the space present a hazard other than those noted above which would make it a permit space? • If any other questions in PART II have been checked yes, the confined space is a Permit-Required Confined Space (PRCS). As such, entry into these spaces must be performed under the protection of your PRCS program. Note: In some situations, alternative procedures or reclassifying to a non-PRCS may be possible in lieu of a full PRCS program.

  24. A Sample Permit XYZ Inc., Confined Space Entry Permit (Example) Date & Time Issued _______________ Date & Time Expires ____________________ Job site/space I.D. _______________ Job Supervisor ____________________ Equipment to be worked on _______________ Work to be performed ____________________ Entrants __________________________ _____________________ _______________________ Stand-by personnel _________________ _____________________ _______________________ • 1. Atmospheric checks Time _______ • Oxygen _______% • Explosive _______% LFL • Toxic _______ PPM • 2. Tester’s signature _______________________ • 3. Source isolation (No Entry) NA Yes No • Pumps or lines blinded, ___ ___ ___ • disconnected or blocked • 4. Ventilation Modification • Mechanical ___ ___ ___ • Natural Ventilation only ___ ___ ___ • 5. Atmospheric check after • isolation and ventilation • Time _______ • Oxygen _______% > 19.5% • Explosive _______%LFL < 10% • Toxic _______PPM < 10 PPM H2S • Tester’s signature ______________________ • 6. Communication procedures _______________ • ________________________________________ • 7. Rescue procedures: _____________________ • ________________________________________ • ________________________________________ 8. Entry, standby, backup persons Training completed? Yes ___ No ___ Training current? Yes ___ No ___ 9. Equipment NA Yes No Direct reading gas monitor tested? ___ ___ ___ Safety harnesses/lifelines for entrants/standby crew? ___ ___ ___ Hoists ___ ___ ___ Powered communications? ___ ___ ___ SCBA’s for entrants and standby crew? ___ ___ ___ Protective clothing? ___ ___ ___ All electric equipment listed Class I, Div I, Group D and non-spark producing? ___ ___ ___ 10. Periodic atmospheric tests Time ____O2 ___% Explosive ___% Toxic ___% Time ____O2 ___% Explosive ___% Toxic ___% Time ____O2 ___% Explosive ___% Toxic ___% Time ____O2 ___% Explosive ___% Toxic ___% Time ____O2 ___% Explosive ___% Toxic ___% Time ____O2 ___% Explosive ___% Toxic ___% Time ____O2 ___% Explosive ___% Toxic ___% Time ____O2 ___% Explosive ___% Toxic ___% Time ____O2 ___% Explosive ___% Toxic ___% We have reviewed the work authorized by this permit and the information contained herein. Written instructions and safety procedures have been received and are understood. Entry cannot be approved if any column is marked “no”. This permit is not valid unless all appropriate items are completed. Permit prepared by: (Supervisor) ________________________ ___________________________ Approved by: (Unit Supervisor) ________________________ ___________________________ Reviewed by: (CS Ops Personnel) ________________________ ___________________________ (Printed Name) (Signature)

  25. WE VALUE YOUR COMMENTS Agree Disagree 1. I found the class materials easy to understand and useable 2. The information I learned today can help me reduce hazards and prevent work-related injuries and illnesses at my workplace 3. Please rate the overall usefulness of this class in helping you to understand your safety and health issues and possible solutions: …Not Effective... … Effective... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4. Please rate the overall effectiveness of the instructor in providing quality training …Not Effective... … Effective... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 We value your comments. Please tell us how we can improve. Thanks !! Class Content: Materials: Instructor: Facility: Other Subjects I’d like to see offered: Department of Consumer and Business Services Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division (OR-OSHA) Public Education Workshop Evaluation Class Title: ____________________________________ Date: ______________ Instructor: _____________________ How did you learn about this workshop? (Please check only ONE) 1. Brochure/Flyer ________ 2. Web site ________ 3. Consultant ________ 4. TV/Radio ________ 5. Newspaper ________ 6. Association ________ 7. Other _________________________________________

  26. OR-OSHA 215 Confined Space Safety Presented by the Public Education Section Department of Business and Consumer Business Oregon OSHA 0106

  27. OR-OSHA Mission Statement To advance and improve workplace safety and health for all workers in Oregon. • Consultative Services • • Offers no-cost on-site safety and health assistance to help Oregon employers recognize and correct safety and health problems in their workplaces. • • Provides consultations in the areas of safety, industrial hygiene, ergonomics, occupational safety and health programs, new-business assistance, the Safety and Health Achievement Recognition Program (SHARP), and the Voluntary Protection Program (VPP). • Enforcement • • Offers pre-job conferences for mobile employers in industries such as logging and construction. • • Provides abatement assistance to employers who have received citations and provides compliance and technical assistance by phone. • • Inspects places of employment for occupational safety and health rule violations and investigates workplace safety and health complaints and accidents. • Appeals, Informal Conferences • • Provides the opportunity for employers to hold informal meetings with OR-OSHA on workplace safety and health concerns. • • Discusses OR-OSHA’s requirements and clarifies workplace safety or health violations. • • Discusses abatement dates and negotiates settlement agreements to resolve disputed citations. • Standards & Technical Resources • • Develops, interprets, and provides technical advice on safety and health standards. • • Provides copies of all OR-OSHA occupational safety and health standards. • • Publishes booklets, pamphlets, and other materials to assist in the implementation of safety and health standards and programs. • • Operates a Resource Center containing books, topical files, technical periodicals, a video and film lending library, and more than 200 databases. • Public Education & Conferences • • Conducts conferences, seminars, workshops, and rule forums. • • Presents many workshops that introduce managers, supervisors, safety committee members, and others to occupational safety and health requirements, technical programs, and safety and health management concepts. • Additional Public Education Services • Safety for Small Business workshops • Interactive Internet courses • Professional Development Certificates • On-site training requests • Access workshop materials • Spanish training aids • Training and Education Grants • Continuing Education Units/Credit Hours For more information on Public Education services, please call (888) 292-5247 Option 2 Go online to check out our Professional Development Certificate Program! Portland Field Office (503) 229-5910 Salem Field Office (503) 378-3274 Eugene Field Office (541) 686-7562 Medford Field Office (541) 776-6030 Bend Field Office (541) 388-6066 Pendleton Field Office (541) 276-9175 Salem Central Office: (800) 922-2689 or (503) 378-3272 Web Site: www.orosha.org

  28. In Compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), this publication is available in alternative formats by calling the OR-OSHA Public Relations Manager at (503) 378-3272 (V/TTY).

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