Used in variety of cellular functions Made of smaller amino acids Monomer: Amino acid Polymer: Protein Only 20 amino acids… but thousands of proteins Exact arrangement of amino acids determines the protein Protein Basics leucine valine glycine alanine leucine leucine histi- dine aspara- gine serine proline = protein A valine leucine glycine alanine leucine leucine histi- dine aspara- gine serine proline = protein B Amino acids (monomer) leucine valine glycine alanine leucine leucine = protein C
Amino Acid Structure • 5 basic parts 1) Central C atom 2) Amino group (NH2) 3) H 4) Carboxyl group (COOH) 5) R group Only 20 amino acids… Each has different R group
What differs between these amino acids? Notice alanine’s different R group Notice Valine’s different R group R group for glycine Notice leucine’s different R group Notice methionine’s different R group Notice isoleucine’s different R group
Enzymes Enzyme amylase glucose glucose glucose glucose • Types of proteins • Enzyme: Lowers the energy needed to start chemical reactions • ex: Break down food • Sensitive to pH, temp • ex: If high fever: enzymes lose ability to work • Very specific in actions • ex: Amylase: Breaks starch into simple sugars • Reusable starch
Kobe Kuiz • What are the smaller monomers that make proteins called? • How many different amino acids exist? • How does each amino acid differ? • The NH2 part of the amino acid is called the ____ group. • The COOH part of the amino acid is called the ____ group. • Which group of proteins help to start chemical reactions?