Why were people upset here? • Divided Society: 1. Peninsulares • people born in Spain…small % • Only peninsulares could hold high office in Spanish colonial government 2. Creoles • Spanish decent but born in Latin America • Couldn’t hold gov’t positions but could be officers in the army ****P&Cs controlled land, wealth, and power – total 23% 3. Mestizos – 7.3% • Mixed European and Indian ancestry 4. Mulattos – 7.6% • European and African ancestry 5. African slaves – 6.4% 6. Indians - 55.8%
What/Who were inspirations for revolutions? • Renaissance • Scientific Revolution • Enlightenment ideas • Examples? • Other Revolutions?
Haitian Revolution: • What do you know?
History of Haiti • Christopher Columbus “discovered” and claimed it for Spain….called it “The Spanish Island” – Hispanola • Settlement built there in 1492 from the wood of the Santa Maria ship • One year later, all 39 settlers found dead • Native population nearly wiped out completely after Europeans started settling • Other European nations colonizing the Caribbean…pirates all around… • French pirates from Tortuga help seize parts of Hispanola
History of Haiti (cont.) • 1697 – Western third ruled by French: “St. Domingue” • St.Domingue was France’s main supplier of sugar, rum, coffee, and cotton • Nearly 500,000 African slaves produced these goods on French plantations • Slaves outnumbered plantation owners, so the owners used brutal methods to control them (whipping, burning, castration) despite the “Code Noir”
Haitian Revolution • Three “classes” of people in St. Domingue (Haiti). • 1. White Colonists • 2. Free blacks – usually mulattoes. Somewhat educated, literate, could help with plantation operations. • 3. Black slaves – high mortality rates…so many brought in from Africa…very distinct culture. Outnumbered other groups 10:1 • ***Some slaves would run away, live in the forest, and steal from plantations, but overall, this was NOT tolerated and punished severely • Sometimes violent raids on plantations drew thousands of slaves together and could be quite successful, but they lacked strong, consistent leadership.
Influence of the French Revolution • French plantation owners welcomed the French Revolution ideas of freedom and equality formed in the “Declaration of Rights of Man”, but… • What did this mean for their slaves? • Inspired by the French Rev., JulienRaimond and Vincent Oge, two wealthy, free black men, went to France to argue for more rights for wealthy men of color. • They came back and were convinced that laws passed that ensured this, but St. Domingue’s white governor denied this and publicly and brutally executed Oge
Revolution in Haiti • August 21, 1791 • Slaves and free blacks upset at their treatment and denied rights plunged the colony into a civil war after a signal given by a voodoo priest • Within weeks, 100,000 slaves had joined the fight and had won control of the northern part of the island • Murder, rape, theft, arson, etc. were methods used • One year later, slaves controlled 1/3 of the island
Nervous, and wanting to stop the revolt, France declares rights to free blacks and sends 6,000 French soldiers to the island • However…In Europe, France declares war with Britain and white planters side with British….Spain on the other part of the island says they’ll fight the French off too…. • Britain and Spain fighting against France on the island…
Toussaint Louverture • Self-educated former house servant • Offers his services to Spanish army at first, then switched to the French side if they would promise to free the slaves How would you pick what side to fight for? • Under the military leadership of Toussaint, the slaves and other partners “won” and got St. Domingue back to France. • Toussaint was the new ruler.
Napoleon’s Influence • 1801 Toussant declares himself “Governor for Life” to ensure black freedom • Napoleon (now leader of France) doesn’t like this and sends French troops to take over the island again • Toussant was tricked, sent to France and died several years later
Life was quiet for a while, but then it got out that the French leaders were going to institute slavery again • More rebellions and fighting • Napoleon loses interest in the Americas and doesn’t lend much support
On 1 January 1804, the new leader under the 1801 constitution, declared Haiti a free republic. • Haiti was the first independent nation in Latin America, the first post-colonial independent black-led nation in the world, and the only nation whose independence was gained as part of a successful slave rebellion. • Haiti was forced to make reparations to French slaveholders in 1825 in the amount of 150 million francs, reduced in 1838 to 60 million francs, in exchange for French recognition of its independence and to achieve freedom from French aggression. This indemnity bankrupted the Haitian treasury. It mortgaged Haiti's future to the French banks that provided the funds for the large first installment, affecting Haiti's ability to be prosperous. (borrowed from wikipedia)
Haitian Revolution • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vm-PSDkMKuw • “Egalite for All” – PBS documentary
Simon Bolivar • Wealthy creole (Spaniard born in Latin America) from Venezuela • Parents died when he was young, so his uncle sent him to Spain to continue his education • He was known as an aristocrat and married a wealthy girl • Went back to Venezuela to visit, wife died of yellow fever
Napoleon’s Influence on Bolivar • Moved to France, where he saw Napoleon become emperor and was introduced to the writings of the Enlightenment • Napoleon then crowned himself King of Italy and was taking over other areas, piece by piece. • Bolivar thought this went against the original ideas of the French revolution and vowed to see South America be independent from its Spanish rulers. • Bolivar returned to Venezuela, but stopped in the United States on the way…the freedom inspired him
Revolution Begins • Napoleon put his brother as king of Spain, the Spanish revolted • South American creoles didn’t like this either, wanted to be free from a Spain ruled by a non-Spaniard • March 1811 a national congress met in to draft a constitution. • It declared Venezuela's independence on July 5, 1811 • Bolivar became leader of the army
Bolivar’s armies weren’t always the most successful • He had to go into exile twice • Turning point: 1819 • 2,000 soldier march through Andes into Colombia and defeated the Spanish army • Please turn to page 251 in your textbook
Independence in Venezuela • 1821, Bolivar won Venezuela’s independence • He then moved on to Ecuador and met up with Jose de San Martin
Jose de San Martin • Jose’s father was a professional soldier in Argentina (in Indian territory) • At six years old, the family returned to Spain • Jose became a loyal officer in the Spanish royal army
Jose and Revolution • When Napoleon put his brother as king of Spain, Jose de Martin resisted • Ended up going to Argentina to join the fight for independence there • “Undoubtedly, peninsular Spanish prejudice against anyone born in the Indies must have rankled throughout his career in Spain and caused him to identify himself with the creole revolutionaries.” www.biography.com
Independence • 1816 - Argentina declares independence from Spain • San Martin led army on march through the Andes and freed Chile • Next stop was to drive the Spanish forces out of Peru, but he needed a larger army • Met up with Bolivar • Last major battle made Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, and Ecuador free – “Gran Colombia”
Miguel Hidalgo • Read pages 251-252 • Then pages 272-277 • 272-273 – read and answer: Were the Latino revolutions like the model? Why? Why not? • 274 – skillbuilder 1 and 2 • 276 – skillbuilder 1 and 2 • 277 – Comparing and Contrasting #1,2,3