Independence in Latin America Main Idea Revolutionary ideas took hold in Latin America as colonies fought for independence from Europe. • Reading Focus • How did early struggles in Latin America affect Haiti and other colonies? • What events led to independence in Mexico? • Who were the key revolutionary leaders in South America, and what did they achieve?
“It takes a revolution…. to make a solution….” - Bob Marley WHAT WERE THE PROBLEMS?
LATIN AMERICAN REVOLUTIONS: MENU CAUSES LEADERS EFFECTS
CAUSES PROBLEMS OF THE SPANISH EMPIRE THE ENLIGHTENMENT THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
PROBLEMS IN THE SPANISH EMPIRE * Political Disempowerment: Spanish colonies were run by the Council of the Indies, a group appointed by the King that met in Spain and sent its directives across the Atlantic. Those directives were carried out by the viceroys, officials appointed by Spain to govern the colonies. * Economic Disempowerment: Spain had the first right to colonial goods and resources. Excluding all competitors, economic policy was set for Spain’s maximum benefit.
SOCIAL HIERARCHY Peninsulares: Native Spaniards Creoles: People of pure European blood But born in the New World P Mulattos: African + European blood C Mestizos: Indian + European blood M & M I & A Indians and Africans CAUSES
THE ENLIGHTENMENT CAUSES BEFORE: Kings are placed on the throne by G-d. Only G-d can remove them. * Government is based on a contract between the ruler and the ruled. * Government exists to protect the citizens’ natural rights of life, liberty, & property. * If the government violates the natural rights of the people, the citizens have a right to revolt against that tyranny.
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION CAUSES * The success of the American Revolution showed others that colonies could succeed in overthrowing their more powerful mother countries.
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION CAUSES * Napoleon crowns himself emperor of France in 1804. * In an attempt to rule all of Europe, he puts family and friends in charge of the territories he has conquered. * In 1810, Napoleon puts his brother Joseph on the throne of Spain. The Spanish royal family flees.
Napoleon Creoles vs. Peninsulares • 1807, French emperor Napoleon invaded Spain, Portugal • Spanish king imprisoned, Portuguese king fled to Brazil • Invasion weakened Spanish, Portuguese power in Latin America • Creole revolutionaries decided time right for fight for independence • Creoles, peninsulares made up highest social class • People of mixed race, Africans, Indians lower on social scale • Creoles excluded from highest levels of government, church • As prosperity grew, creoles resented peninsulares, faraway Spanish rulers Growing Tensions
Early Struggles in Latin America Haiti Becomes Independent Toussaint L’Ouverture • Saint Domingue, western half of Caribbean island Hispaniola, first Latin American territory to break ties with Europe • Sugar exports made Saint Domingue one of France’s richest possessions • Prosperity built on slave labor • French Revolution had dramatic effect on island • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen gave vote to all free men, including mulattoes • French settlers on Saint Domingue resisted new law • Toussaint L’Ouverture led bloody revolt against settlers • Toussaint’s military, political actions made him hero in Hispaniola The Enlightenment and the American and French revolutions inspired some in Latin America to seek greater freedom.
LEADERS SANMARTIN BOLIVAR HIDALGO MORELOS
SIMON BOLIVAR * Elite Creole planter Military General LEADERS * Called the “George Washington of South America.” * Liberated territories of modern day Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, & Bolivia * Plan for a federated Latin America was crushed by political in-fighting.
Revolutionary Leaders in South America • Inspiration • Revolutions in Haiti, Mexico, America, France inspired leaders in South America • Independence movements began to form, leaders emerged • Simon Bolivar • Simon Bolivar, most influential leader in South American independence movement • Known as “the Liberator” • Venezuelan Roots • Bolivar born into wealthy creole family, often traveled to Europe • Admired Napoleon’s leadership; in Rome, pledged to liberate South America • Independence • 1811, Venezuela declared independence from Spain • Bolivar led military campaigns against Spanish for 10 years, defeated Spanish 1821
JOSE DE SAN MARTIN LEADERS * Creole officer who had trained in European armies. * Liberated Argentina from Spanish control. * Met with Bolivar in Guayaquil in 1822. While Bolivar favored democracy, San Martin felt only monarchy could work. Turned over command. * Died in obscurity in Europe.
Chile Gran Colombia • 1816, San Martin declared independence for Argentina, moved on to Chile • Led troops over 15,000 foot summit in Andes • Surprised Spanish troops, won independence for Chile • After Chile, San Martin moved to Gran Colombia, met Simon Bolivar • Historians do not know what they discussed when they met • San Martin resigned position after meeting, returned to Europe • Left Bolivar in power José de San Martin • José de San Martin fought for independence from Spain in south • San Martin had fought against Napoleon in Spain • Born in Argentina, returned home when he learned country rising up against Spanish rule; eventually led independence movement in Argentina and most of southern South America
MIGUEL HIDALGO LEADERS * Highly educated Creole priest assigned to town of Dolores. * September 16, 1810: El Grito de Dolores. Hidalgo rang the church bell and called upon his mestizo and indigenous parishioners to take up arms against the Spanish. * Led a rag-tag army toward Mexico City, unleashing mass slaughter of peninsulares in path. * Never made it to the capital -- Captured and shot in 1811.
Father Hidalgo Call to Revolt • 1810, creole priest, Father Miguel Hidalgo, made first public call for Mexican independence • Had history of challenging authority, eventually met creoles who wanted to take power from peninsulares, helped plan rebellion • September 16, 1810, Hidalgo delivered famous speech calling for fight against Spanish peninsulares, though not against Spain • Spanish authorities realized Hidalgo behind growing revolution; captured, executed him Independence in Mexico Napoleon’s conquest of Spain was the spark for independence in the colony of New Spain, as Mexico was known at the time. Mexico was a Spanish colony with a mixture of creoles, peninsulares, Indians, and people of mixed race. Hidalgo would later become known as the Father of Mexican Independence.
JOSE MORELOS * Much more successful general “With three such men as Jose Morelos, I could conquer the world.” - Napoleon Bonaparte MENU LEADERS *Mestizo Priest who took over from Hidalgo. * Established a congress which: *Created a declaration of rights *Abolished slavery *Declared equality of classes *Captured and executed in December 1815
Morelos Continues the Revolution • Morelos Continues the Revolution • After death of Hidalgo, another creole priest, Jose Maria Morelos, became leader of revolutionary movement • Organized Mexican congress, representatives from many places • Wanted all people born in Mexico, whether Indian, mixed or creole, to be called Americans • Independent Republic • Morelos wanted Mexico to be an independent republic with guaranteed freedoms • Strong military leader, took control of parts of Mexico for independence movement • Captured, found guilty of treason, executed by Spanish authorities
EFFECTS POLITICAL INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC
POLITICAL: THE CAUDILLOS EFFECTS * By 1830, nearly all Latin American countries were ruled by caudillos. WHY? * The upper classes supported dictatorship because it kept the lower classes out of power. * The lower classes did not have experience with democracy. Dictatorship seemed normal.
INTERNATIONAL: THE MONROE DOCTRINE “The American continents…are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.” - James Monroe, 1823
WHY? EFFECTS * The War of 1812 with Britain had shown the U.S. that some-times revolutionary victories could lead to sequels. * The U.S. had political and economic interests in keeping Europe out of the Western hemisphere. From 1823 on, it would be the U.S.’ backyard. * Though the U.S. did not have the muscle to back up its threats, Great Britain agreed to support the Monroe Doctrine due to its new favorable trading position in Latin America.
ECONOMIC: ONE-CROP ECONOMIES * Now that trade was not restricted to the mother country, the U.S. and Great Britain became the new countries’ major trading partners. * A colonial economy continued…Latin America mainly exported cash crops and raw materials while importing manufactured goods.
AN IMBALANCE OF TRADE * As the imbalance of trade grew, Latin American countries took out large loans from the U.S., Britain, and Germany to build infrastructure. * When the countries could not pay back their loans, foreign lenders gained control of major industries in Latin America.
THE QUESTION OF LAND AT LEAST, DID THE SOCIAL PYRAMID CHANGE? EFFECTS NO! * Once the Spaniards were expelled, the new governments seized their lands and put them up for sale, BUT….only the creoles could afford to buy them. * Thus, the creoles replaced the peninsulares at the top of the social pyramid, but other classes remained at the bottom of the ladder.
Dictatorship of the Council of the Indies and the Viceroys Dictatorship of the Caudillos Unequal trade relationship with Spain benefiting Unequal trade relationship with Great Britain and the U.S. benefiting Native Spaniards at the top of the social ladder, followed by creoles, and with the rest of the population at the bottom Creoles at the top of the ladder with the rest of the population at the bottom.
BOLIVAR’S LAST WORD * Simon Bolivar had taken up the cause of independence hoping to establish a new order where Latin American countries would be free, democratic, and federated (in agreement to work together.) Instead, upon his death, he saw a world in which dictators ruled and disunity reigned. Disgusted by what he saw, he gave this warning to future generations: “America is ungovernable for us. He who serves a revolution plows the sea.”