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Latin American Revolutions

Latin American Revolutions

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Latin American Revolutions

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  1. Latin American Revolutions Libertyville HS

  2. Conquest to Colonies • Conquistadors defeated Aztecs, Mayans & Incans; set up gov’ts • New Spain = Aztec / Mayan area • Viceroyalty = “assistant king” • Viceroy appointed by king • Had authority of king • Semi-independent • Audiencia • Judicial courts in New World • Also had legislative powers

  3. The Colonial Experience • Social structure based on purity of Spanish bloodlines • Peninsulares: socially superior to all others • Criollos(Iberians born in New Spain): wealthiest class • Mestizos: Spanish men, American Ind. Women; excluded from econ op. • Slaves • Women were to be obedient to men (patriarchal society) • Catholic Church • Church as imp. as gov’t officials • Natives identified w/ Virgin Mary • Crucifixion mirrored their suffering

  4. The Colonial Experience • European born were dominant & controlled native labor • Mining • Cash crops • Trade • Colonial Administration • Directed from Spain • Responsible to Spain • BUT semi-independent from Spain (distance, time)

  5. The Colonial Experience • Economy • Mining was key (silver, gold) • Agriculture: cash & food crop • Encomiendas(labor system) • Given a certain # of natives • Responsible for teaching Spanish, religion in exchange for food, gold • Haciendas (self sufficient land grants) • Trade • Spanish monopoly • Slave trade: British monopoly (asiento – K – between Spain, Britain, to supply slaves)

  6. European Power in Sp. America • Spanish power declined in late 17th / early 18th C. • Spanish Hapsburgs weak • Peninsulares, Criollos dominated Am. w/ little interference from Spain • Bourbons took over, 1701 (remember the War of Spanish Succession?) • More efficient government • Revived Spanish control in NW • More efficient taxation = more wealth taken out of NW

  7. Opposition to Spanish Control • Simon Bolivar (1783-1830) • Success of American Revolution inspired him to seek freedom for Spanish colonies • Called “The Liberator” • Contributed to liberation of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Panama, Bolivia • Formed federation of former colonies called Gran Columbia • Served as its president from 1821-1830 • Believed in strong central gov’t • Anti-slavery Gran Columbia in blue

  8. Haitian Revolution (against French) • Santo Domingo (island) • 2/3 of Fr. Tropical imports • 1/3 of Fr. Total foreign trade! • Brutal slave economy • Poor living conditions • Harsh punishments • Constant demand for more African slaves

  9. The Haitian Revolution • French Rev. in France leads to rev. in islands • Rich planters vs. free mixed race population (“gens de coleur” – mulattoes) • Slaves take advantage, rebel • Plantations burned, masters killed, houses destroyed • Combined African political culture w/ Fr. Rev. ideology

  10. Haitian Revolution • Toussaint L’Ouverture • Former slave, leader of rebellion • Created an organized, disciplined military force • 1794: Fr. NA abolished slavery • 1801: L’Ouverture adopted liberal constitution • Asserted loyalty to France • Made Haiti indep. • And then Napoleon took over…

  11. Haitian Revolution • 1802: Nap. sent army to reclaim Santo Domingo • Captured Toussaint (sent to France, died in prison) • Then, yellow fever infected French troops • Brutality on both sides • Native resistance strong; they began winning the fight • Fr. forces withdrew • US (Thomas Jefferson) put embargo on Haiti (feared free blacks)

  12. Haitian Revolution • Outcomes • With no base in Americas, Napoleon sold colonies to USA • Haiti declared indep. 1804 (first black republic) • US continued embargo (Jefferson pro-French) • Haiti economy a shambles for decades • Political violence continue for decades Jean Jacques Dessalines, first President of the republic

  13. The Disintegration of Argentina • Bolivar: “I fear peace more than war” • Difficulties following revolution • No middle class • No tradition of self rule • No cultural unity • Contrast with USA • Rise of caudillo (military dictator) • Usually a military officer who took over government • Ruled using combo of charisma, strength, patronage

  14. The Disintegration of Argentina • Decades of civil war tore Argentina apart • Paraguay, Uruguay, and Bolivia declared independence from Argentina • Juan Manuel Rosas, caudillo of Argentina (1828-52) • Violent: assassination, intimidation of enemies • BUT he brought economic benefits to region • “Man of the people” (whipping story) Juan Manuel de Rosas, caudillo of Argentina

  15. Mexican Independence • Republic est. 1823 • Spain invaded, 1829 (defeated) • French invaded, 1838 (defeated) • Mexico invited US citizens to settle in Texas (then, a state of Mexico) in 1820s • Soon outnumbered Mexicans • Opposed Mexican gov’ts abolition of slavery

  16. Mexican Independence • 1835-36: TX rebellion vs. Mexican liberals • Alamo • BUT Texans win war, declare independence • 1845: TX became a state of US – provoked war • 1848: Treaty forced Mexico to give up Mexico Cession (CA, NM, AZ) • In return, Mexico received $15 million

  17. Mexican Independence • Mexican liberals took over gov’t: Benito Juarez • Reforms (equality; no privileges for church, military) • Sparked CW w/ conservatives (1858-1861) • French invaded in 1862, set up Maximilian as Emperor • Austrian Hapsburg • US threatened to get involved after 1865 • French pulled out, Max executed in 1867

  18. Results of Independence Movements • Legacy of Spanish colonialism • Political liberalism limited • Much of L.A. were economic disaster areas (corruption, primitive economies) • Latin American weakness allowed USA rise to prominence in last ½ of 19th C.