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Latin AMERICAN REVOLUTIONS

Latin AMERICAN REVOLUTIONS

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Latin AMERICAN REVOLUTIONS

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  1. Latin AMERICAN REVOLUTIONS

  2. Revolution in haiti • You should remember this from Napoleon… • First Latin American territory to free itself from European rule • Toussaint L’Overture – leader of the revolution • 1804 – declared independence

  3. The divisions in Spanish colonial society in 1789 Do you remember the Spanish colonial system we talked about when we learned about the Atlantic World???

  4. Latin america sweeps to freedom • Latin America sharply divided into classes based on birth. • Peninsulares and Creoles dominated and controlled wealth and power • Creoles = least oppressed BUT they could not hold high office. Many were educated in Europe THEREFORE they brought back Enlightenment ideas WHICH brought on a revolution in Latin America

  5. How Spain will affect spanishamerica • The last straw was Napoleon’s invasion of Spain. • When he deposed the Spanish king, the Creoles felt no loyalty to a French king. • Creoles argued the power now shifted to the people. • Even after Napoleon was defeated and the Spanish king was brought back, it was too late…

  6. Processing • According to the social hierarchy, who held the most power in Spanish America? • What factors caused the revolutions in Spanish America? (Give me two!)

  7. Spanish america • Simón Bolivar – wealthy Venezuelan creole • Believes in equality for all • Helped declare independence from Spain • Decisive victory in Colombia • 1830 – Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Bolivia, Ecuador win independence

  8. Hidalgo calls for an end to spanish rule • So far we have seen how creoles led revolutions. • In Mexico, the Native Americans and mestizos play a role… • Miguel Hidalgo – priest who calls for Mexico’s independence movement • Firmly believed in Enlightenment ideas • His uprising will be defeated in 1811 • Creoles did not support mestizo uprising

  9. Mexico’s independence • After a liberal group was put in power, the creoles feared a loss of privileges • Creoles decide to revolt! • 1821 - Mexico claims independence • Before the Mexican revolution, Central America had been governed from Mexico  After Mexico’s independence several Central American states declared their independence from Spain (and Mexico).

  10. brazil • Most unique independence movement in Latin America because there was no violent uprisings • After Napoleon invaded Portugal, the royal family fled to Brazil. • 1822 – Creoles demand independence from Portugal • Dom Pedro signs a petition officially freeing Brazil • Won its independence through a bloodless revolution

  11. Latin america 1800-1830 Latin America, 1800 Latin America, 1830

  12. Effects of latinamerican revolutions • Independence brought an increase in poverty • Disrupted trade • Devastated cities • Geography – prevents a united Latin America • Government • Colonial gov’ts same as home country gov’t = Latin Americans had no experience w/self gov’t, unfamiliar with democratic principles/practices

  13. Effects of latinamerican revolutions • Social Order • Rigid social/economic/political order gave too much power to Creoles, not enough to the mestizos • Catholic Church • Strong influence prevented true separation of church and state • Economy not diverse – based mainly on mining of gold and silver

  14. Monroe doctrine • The Monroe Doctrine was issued by President James Monroe (U.S.) in 1823. • Latin American nations were acknowledged to be independent. • The United States would regard as a threat to its own peace and safety any attempt by European powers to impose their system on any independent state in the Western Hemisphere.