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  1. 1 A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT Introduction John W. Santrock

  2. Introduction • The Life-Span Perspective • The Nature of Development • Theories of Development • Research in Life-Span Development

  3. The Life-Span Perspective The Life-Span Perspective • Development—pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through life span

  4. The Life-Span Perspective The Importance of Studying Life-Span Development • Describe • Explain • Discover ways to optimize

  5. The Life-Span Perspective Views of Child Development Original sin view Children born into world corrupted with inclination toward evil Tabla rasa view Children born as “blank slates” and acquire characteristics through experience (Locke) Innate goodnessview Children born inherently good (Rousseau)

  6. Lifelong Multidimensional Multidirectional Plastic Contextual Multidisciplinary Growth, Maintenance, and Regulation The Life-Span Perspective Characteristics of the Life-Span Perspective

  7. The Life-Span Perspective Influences on Development Normative age-graded influences Biological and environmental influences similar for individuals in a particular age group Biological and environmental influences associated with history Normative history-graded influences Unusual occurrences that have a major impact on a person’s life Nonnormative life events

  8. Normative Age-Graded Influences • Puberty • Started formal education • Menopause • Retired

  9. Normative History-Graded Influences • Economic Changes • 9/11 • War in Iraq

  10. Non-Normative Life Events • Death of a parent • Sexual abuse • Brain injury

  11. The Nature of Development Processes in Development

  12. Prenatal Infancy Early childhood Middle and late childhood Adolescence Early adulthood Middle adulthood Late adulthood The Nature of Development Periods of Development

  13. The Nature of Development Conceptions of Age • Chronological age—number of years elapsed since person’s birth • Biological age—age in terms of biological health • Psychological age—individual’s adaptive capacities • Social age—social roles and expectations related to person’s age

  14. The Nature of Development Developmental Issues Nature and Nurture Extent to which development is influenced by nature and by nurture Degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or change Stability and Change Extent development involves gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity) Continuity-Discontinuity

  15. Nature Biological Inheritance • Genes • Biological Functions • Neurotransmitters • Serotonin • Dopamin • Hormones • Cortisol • Testosterone • Estrogen

  16. Nature (cont.) Physical appearance/Characteristics • Height, hair color, eye color • Clumsiness? Grace? Artistic or Music ability? Spatial Skills? Extreme environmental deprivation can affect development

  17. Nurture • Biological Environment • Nutrition, medical care, drugs, physical accidents • Social Environment • Family, peers, schools, community, media, culture

  18. Nature or Nurture? • Stress/Diathesis Model for Mental Illness • Genetic predisposition in combo with stressful life events or circumstances MZ DZ • Major Depressive 40% 11% • Bipolar 70% 15% • Schizophrenia 30-50% 10-15%

  19. Nature or Nurture? • Complex Interaction between the two Maternal Instinct? Brazelton Baby with feeding problems

  20. The Nature of Development Continuity and Discontinuity in Development

  21. The Nature of Development Evaluating the Developmental Issues • Most life-span developmentalists do not take extreme positions on the three developmental issues • Nature and nurture • Stability and change • Continuity and discontinuity

  22. Theories of Development Psychoanalytic Theories • Importance of: • Unconscious processes • Early experiences • Heavily couched in emotion • Behavior a surface characteristic • Important to analyze symbolic meanings of behavior

  23. Defense Mechanisms • Repression • Reaction-Formation • Projection • Regression • Conversion • Undoing • Dissociation

  24. Freud’s Stages Oral Adult personality determined by way we resolve conflicts between sources of pleasure at each stage and demands of reality Anal Phallic Latency Genital Theories of Development Freud’s Psychosexual Theory • Id • Ego • Superego

  25. Theories of Development Erikson’sPsychosocial Theory • Eight stages of development • Unique development task confronts individuals with crisis that must be resolved • Positive resolution builds foundation for healthy development

  26. Theories of Development Erikson’s Life-Span Stages Late adulthood Integrity vs. despair Middle adulthood Generativity vs. stagnation Early adulthood Intimacy vs. isolation Adolescence Identity vs. identity confusion Middle\late childhood Industry vs. inferiority Infancy/Early childhood Initiative vs. guilt Autonomy vs. shame and doubtTrust vs. mistrust

  27. Theories of Development Evaluating thePsychoanalytic Theories • Contributions • Early experiences • Family relationships • Unconscious • Adult changes • Criticisms • Difficult to test • Emphasis on sexual underpinnings • Unconscious too important • Negative • Culture and gender bias

  28. Theories of Development Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory • Children actively construct understanding • Go through four stages of cognitive development • Sensorimotor • Preoperational • Concrete Operational • Formal Operational

  29. Theories of Development Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory • Emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development • Social interaction with more skilled adults and peers advances cognitive development

  30. Theories of Development Information-Processing Theory • Emphasizes individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it • Memory • Thinking

  31. Theories of Development Evaluating theCognitive Theories • Contributions • Active construction of understanding • Importance of developmental changes • Detailed descriptions • Criticisms • Lack individual variations • Information processing theory lacks description • Unconscious

  32. Theories of Development Behavioral Theories • Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning • Neutral stimulus paired with active stimulus to produce response • Skinner’s Operant Conditioning • Consequences of behavior changes probability of behavior’s occurrence

  33. Theories of Development Social Cognitive Theories • Behavior, environment, and person/cognition are important developmentfactors • Albert Bandura • Walter Mischel

  34. Bandura’s Social Cognitive Model

  35. Theories of Development Evaluating the Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories • Contributions • Scientific research • Environmental determinants • Observational learning • Person and cognitive factors • Criticisms • Lack focus on cognition • Overemphasize environmental determinants • Too little attention to developmental changes

  36. Theories of Development Ethological Theory • Behavior • Strongly influenced by biology • Tied to evolution • Characterized by critical or sensitive periods

  37. Theories of Development Evaluating Ethological Theory • Contributions • Biological and evolutionary • Careful observations • Sensitive periods of development • Criticisms • Emphasis on biological foundations • Inadequate attention to cognition • Animal focus

  38. Theories of Development Ecological Theory • Bronfenbrenner’s view that development influenced by five environmental systems • Microsystem • Mesosystem • Exosystem • Macrosystem • Chronosystem

  39. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory

  40. Theories of Development Sociocultural Contexts • Cross-cultural studies—comparisons of one culture with one or more other cultures. • Ethnicity—range of characteristics rooted in cultural heritage. • Gender—psychological and sociocultural dimension of being female or male.

  41. Theories of Development Evaluating Ecological Theory • Contributions • Macro and micro dimensions • Connections • Sociohistorical influences • Criticisms • Lacks emphasis on biological foundations • Inadequate attention to cognitive processes

  42. Theories of Development Family Contexts • Children in non-poor home environments were more likely than those in poor homes to: • Get responses to their speech • Have toys or interesting activities • Have ten or more books of their own • See their father daily • Were less likely to be slapped or spanked

  43. Theories of Development Characteristics of Resilient Children

  44. Theories of Development An Eclectic Theoretical Orientation • Does not strictly follow any one theoretical approach • Selects whatever is considered the best in each theory

  45. Research in Life-Span Development Methods for Collecting Data • Observation • Laboratory—controlled setting • Naturalistic observation—observing behavior in real-world settings • Survey and Interview

  46. Research in Life-Span Development Methods for Collecting Data • Standardized Test—test with uniform procedures for administration and scoring • Psychophysiological Measures • Case Study—in-depth look at individual • Life History Record

  47. Research in Life-Span Development Research Designs • Descriptive Research—observes and records behavior • Correlational Research—strength of relation between events or characteristics • Correlation coefficient—describes degree of association between two variables

  48. Research in Life-Span Development Experiments • Carefully regulated procedures in which one or more factors are manipulated while all other factors are held constant • Independent and Dependent Variables • Experimental and Control Groups • Can state cause and effect

  49. Research in Life-Span Development Time Span of Research • Cross-Sectional Approach—individuals of different ages are compared at one time • Longitudinal Approach—same individuals studied over period of time • Sequential Approach—combined cross-sectional, longitudinal design

  50. Research in Life-Span Development Cohort Effects • Due to subject’s time of birth or generation, but not age