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Chapter 25 Section 1

Chapter 25 Section 1

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Chapter 25 Section 1

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  1. Chapter 25 Section 1 The Industrial Revolution

  2. The Industrial Revolution Changed way lived & worked. • From farming - manufacturing based econ. • Cottage industry - Old • Factories - New • Key factors made Britain the ideal place for the IR to start.

  3. Agricultural practices in 18th c More farmland good weather new crops - potato Improved farming methods Crop rotation Jethro Tull: The seed drill Agriculture Revolution

  4. Agricultural Revolution • RESULT: • Better food production • More crops at a lower price  • Population grew Previously Now

  5. “Enclosed” Lands • Enclosure: process of taking over and fencing off land

  6. Enclosure Movement • Better food production • Population grew • Leads to enclosure • Enclosure movement: • Peasants forced off land • Fewer workers needed • RESULT: • people moved to towns for work • supply of labor

  7. Economic Conditions • Supply of Markets • Colonial empires • Easy transportation to markets • Increased population = increased demand • Wealthy people w/$ to spend • RESULT: • Many markets to sell goods • Change from “cottage industry” to factories

  8. Resources • Factors of Production • Resources needed to produce goods • Land (natural resources) • Coal & iron ore • Manufacturing • Steam engines - coal • Labor • Workers (plenty Ag Rev.) • Mine coal & run machines • Capital • $$$$ • Factories and Machines • RESULT: • Britain had supply & made money • $$$ to invest in machines & factories

  9. Changesto the Textile Industry • Factories • Developed b/c new machinery too big for home • Located near water sources for power • What problems can come from this?

  10. Inventions in the Textile Industry • Flying Shuttle: • increased weaving production • Spinning Jenny: • spun multiple threads at same time

  11. Inventions in Textile Industry • Power loom: mechanized loom • power made operation completely automatic • Water frame: • waterpower to increase spinning

  12. TransportationRevolution • John McAdam - Roads • Large rocks - drainage • Layer smooth crushed rock on top • Heavy wagons travel in rain • Other new transportation • Canals to connect rivers • Stronger bridges

  13. Transportation: New Technology • James Watt • steam engine • key power source • An energy revolution • Coal to power steam engine

  14. Transportation: New Technology • Steam Locomotive & Railroads • Steamboats travel waterways

  15. Changing History • The IR was a long, slow process • simple tools complex machines. • New energy sources human and animal power. • People lived in small villages. • Cottage Industry • Now people live in the cities • Work in factories • Eliminated the “Cottage Industry”

  16. Chapter 25 Section 2 Changes caused by The Industrial Revolution

  17. Main Idea: Industrialization caused many changes in Europe What were your predictions for change? Growth of Population and Cities Industrial Classes form Living conditions Working conditions Changes in Europe

  18. Growth of Population and Cities • Population grew • London’s population grown to 1 mil. • Increased food supply better fed & healthier • Cities begin to be homes to factories • people began to move to find jobs • Urbanization city building & the movement of people to cities

  19. Middle Class: merchants, Factory owners, wealthy farmers Claimed most of the wealth from the revolution Lived comfortably in the suburbs Working Class: Laborers in factories Poor, lived in slums of the city lived in tenements (multi-story building w/small apartments) New Industrial Classes Original classes: Nobles and peasants

  20. Living Areas

  21. Living Conditions • rapid growth & limited space • living conditions - terrible for many • No plans or building codes • No protection – police • Poor people lived in small houses in cramped streets.

  22. Living Conditions • Tenements • No running water • No sewage or sanitation system • Waste & garbage rotted in streets • Disease widespread

  23. Improvements to the Cities • Paved Streets • Street lights • Police & fire forces • Underground sewage systems • Steel to construct buildings (skyscrapers)

  24. Working Conditions • machines running as much as possible • 12-15 hrs • 6 days/wk • Workers not allowed to speak to each other • Pay was very low 17.5 - 25 cents/hr • Wmn & children - paid much less

  25. Turn of the century working conditions • Many accidents (no safety devices) • Sick/injured = lose of job • Save money in factories • Dangerous conditions • Not well lit • Dirty • No safety devices • No aid for injury – lost job • diseases

  26. Factories: Child Labor • Why Child Labor • Smaller hands/quicker moving • Did the jobs adults were too big for • Families needed the wages children brought home

  27. Discipline worse Beaten or whipped to keep working Could pay kids less to do work that was easy to accomplish no consideration for their safety. Factories: Child Labor

  28. Child Labor: Punishment • One common punishment for being late or not working up to quota would be to be "weighted." • An overseer would tie a heavy weight to worker's neck and have them walk up and down the factory aisles so the other children could see them and "take example." This could last up to an hour.

  29. Women • Women • Employed as spinners, did cleaning, miners, etc • Easier to manage • Less pay • After work, tend to the family & all the problems of urban life • worked through pregnancy and even with young children

  30. Positive Effects: Eventually • Created jobs • Nation wealthier • Progress in technology • Increased production • Raised the standard of living • Expanded education • laws for better wages & conditions

  31. Working Class Victories • Reforms to help laborers • Limits # of hours • couldn’t employ children under 10 • Regulated safety in factories • Minimum wage laws • Improved public health and housing for workers • Education Act: public education for all children • 1830/40s pass laws regulating child labor