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Call to Order

Call to Order

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Call to Order

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  1. Call to Order What was the most interesting fact that you learned yesterday in your research? What norms (or rules) should we follow when other people are presenting their findings?

  2. A special thanks to… Our class editors, Nicola Knights, Fatimata Kane, Devin Braxton, and De’shya Moody.

  3. As you watch the presentations: • Take Cornell style notes of the slides that have the pencils on them, of only underlined words • If you see other slides you would LIKE notes on, feel free to jot down notes/questions • Be silent while others are talking • Raise your hand if you have a question

  4. What were the first shots at Fort Sumter? • On April 12, 1861 the federal government attacked the confederacy • Guns opened fire on the island • No one was killed. The South reacted by starting the Civil War. Created by scholars F. Campbell, E. Smith, and K. McKnight

  5. Why did Lincoln call out the militia? • The state militias were armies of ordinary citizens rather than professional soldiers. Created by scholars F. Campbell, E. Smith, and K. McKnight

  6. What were the border states? • Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri were slave states that boarded states in which states was illegal • Lincoln ordered the arrest of Maryland law makers who backed the south • 24 states made up the union and 11 joined the confederacy Created by scholars F. Campbell, E. Smith, and K. McKnight

  7. What were the strengths and weaknesses of the north and south? • The north had 22 million people but the south had roughly 9 • The north had factories and almost all naval power • The south had better leaders and knew their territories since they were fighting on defensive war Created by scholars K. Meco and D. Horvath

  8. Created by scholars K. Meco and D. Horvath

  9. What was the confederate strategy? • The southerners depended on cotton to win foreign support • They withheld cotton from European markets to force France and England to aid them • The Europeans were growing there own cotton and did not want to get involved with the American war Created by scholars K. Meco and D. Horvath

  10. What strategy did the union have? • They created a strategy called Anaconda plan that was designed to destroy the south’s economy • They were going to create a blockade that prevented goods from going into or out of the country • The plan would take time to work Created by scholars K. Meco and D. Horvath

  11. How was the Battle of Bull Run formed? • Union wanted Richmond so they had to defeat the confederate troops in Manassas, Virginia • July 21, 1861 union forces commanded by Irvin McDowell, the union forces clashed with confederate forces headed by general Pierre Beauregard near a creak called bull run Created by scholar N. Knights

  12. Who were the soldiers in the Civil war? • Majority of the soldiers were between 18 and 30 of age • Half of the soldiers on both sides of the forces came from farms • Majority of the soldiers in the war were born in the US, immigrants from other countries also served Created by scholar N. Knights

  13. How were Civilians turned into soldiers? • Followed a set schedule • In between drills and meals soldiers performed guard duty, cut wood for campfires, dug trenches for latrines and cleaned up the camp Created by scholar N. Knights

  14. What were the hardships of army life? • Soldiers in the field were dirty • Cattle were killed to provide them with meat • Soldiers had poor hygiene due to the conditions they lived in Created by scholars A. Diame and I. Vega

  15. What were changes in military technology? • Rifle is a gun with a grooved barrel that causes the bullet to spin through the air • The minié ball is a bullet with a hollow base • Ironclads, warships covered with iron, proved to be a vast improvement over wooden ships Created by scholars A. Diame and I. Vega

  16. What were the union victories in the west? • The victorious Union general in the west was Ulysses S. Grant • Took Tennessee • Took Fort Henry and Fort Donelson Created by scholars A. Diame and I. Vega

  17. What was the significance of the Battle of Shiloh? • This battle was the fiercest fighting the civil war had ever seen • General Johnston was killed and the command passed to General Pierre Beauregard • Killed union army members numbered over 13,000, about one-forth of those who fought. The confederates lost nearly 11,000 out of 41,000 soldiers. Created by scholars F. Kane and K. Wilson

  18. Was the fall of new Orleans significant to the south? • April 25, a union fleet led by David Farrugut captured New Orleans, the largest city in the south • Residents stood on the docks and cursed the Yankee invaders, but they were powerless to stop them • The fall of New Orleans was a heavy blow to the south Created by scholars F. Kane and K. Wilson

  19. How did Lee claim victories in the east? • In June 1862, Lee took charge of the army of the Northern Virginia and proceeded to turn the situation around • Lee sent Jed and his cavlary to spy on McCellan • The Seven Days’ Battle started Created by scholars F. Kane and K. Wilson

  20. Why did General Lee invade the north? • General Lee had just won many victories in the east • General Lee saw the opportunity to attack. Without waiting for president Davis he attacked Maryland • He hoped to attacked and scare the south to defeat or surrender Created by scholars M. Davis and D. Hanson

  21. What was the Bloody Antietem? • One of General Lee’s confederate officers left battle plans at campsite • Union officers found plans and decided to intercept Lee’s army • McCellan and Lee’s army clashed and resulted in a blood bash Created by scholars M. Davis and D. Hanson

  22. What was the Emancipation Proclamation and what did it do? • Abolitionist wanted Lincoln to emancipation enslaved people • Lincoln didn’t think he could go against the constitution • In 1862 Lincoln freed slaves ONLY in areas that were against the Union, to weaken the south Created by scholars D. Braxton and A. Ellis

  23. How did people respond? • White slave owners and other northern democrats were outraged • Abolitionist were happy but thought it should have gone better • Lincoln had not freed ALL enslaved people, including those in the border states Created by scholars D. Braxton and A. Ellis

  24. Why did Frederick Douglas want African-Americans in the war? • He felt as if fighting in the war would be African Americans’ first steps toward citizenship. Created by scholars N. Knights and F. Kane

  25. Call to Order (Review) Why did Frederick Douglass want African American soldiers fighting on behalf of the Union? (Review) In which states did the Emancipation Proclamation free slaves? In which states did it NOT free slaves?

  26. What was the 54th Massachusetts? • July 1863 • An attack was made to take over Fort Wagner, South Carolina • Increased African American enlistment in the war because they wanted to fight for their freedom Created by scholar E. Cogar

  27. What were the disagreements about the war? • Southerners began leaving the war in large numbers. • They were growing weary of the war. • South had lost 40% of their soldiers. Created by scholar E. Cogar

  28. Why were the draft laws passed? • Both sides needed soldiers, so they passed a law that could force people into the war. • All able bodied white men between 18 and 45 could be drafted. • Planters who owned 20 or more slaves could avoid military service. Created by scholar E. Cogar

  29. What were the economic effects of the war? • Many people suffered from food shortages • In the South prices rose, in the North, prices stayed the same or rose a little Created by scholar J. Dunn

  30. How did the slaves resist fighting for the Confederates? • Slaves slowed the pace of work or stopped working • Some carried out sabotage by destroying crops and equipment • Slaves refused to go along and stayed behind to wait for the Union army to come. Created by scholar J. Dunn

  31. How did women aid in the war? • The women helped supply armies with food and were also nurses. • Not only did men die, but so did women. • Some were spies. Created by scholar J. Dunn

  32. What happened in civil war prison camps? • Captured soldiers were put under terrible conditions • Drinking supplies were used as sewers so many soldiers died from disease • Other prisoners up north died from weather conditions like frost bite and hypothermia Created by scholar R. Sumler

  33. What happened at the Battle of Gettysburg? • 90,000 Union troops vs. 75,000 Confederates • Fighting went on for three days • Pickett Charge was the turning point of the battle Created by scholar D. Braxton

  34. What was the siege of Vicksburg? • General Grant defeated confederate troops • Troops surrounded the city and prevented delivery of food and supplies • Took complete control of the Mississippi river, splitting the South in two. Created by scholar D. Moody

  35. What was Sherman’s total war? • Sherman took Atlanta in September 1864. He set off on a path of destruction, destroying rail lines, crops, and burned and looted towns. • After this, northerners sensed victory was close. Created by scholar D. Moody

  36. How did Grant’s Virginia campaign end? • Grant lost 17,000 men as he went after Virginia, but he told Lincoln he would not retreat. • Troops dug trench around Petersburg. • After 10 months, the confederate flag went down and the stars and stripes went up. Created by scholar D. Moody

  37. What was the solution of the surrender at Appotomax? • Lee then fled while Grant pursued. • Lee sent Grant a letter of surrender. • Grant gave confederate soldiers food to return home with, and said they could go in peace. Created by scholar D. Moody

  38. For Tomorrow, you must know the following terms/concepts • Nat Turner Rebellion (what were the effects?) • The differences between the North and South, economically • How westward expansion influenced our decisions on slavery • The Compromise of 1850, the Missouri Compromise, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the Fugitive Slave Act • The effects of abolitionist writings • How Lincoln and Douglas felt about the Dred Scott decision • What the Dred Scott decision was and its significance • “Bleeding Kansas” • The platforms of the election of 1860 • Why Lincoln became involved in the Civil War • The Union vs. the Confederate strategy • The role of African American soldiers in the Civil War • The effects of the emancipation proclamation