Complete the Front of the worksheet • Worksheet can be found on brown table under the bulletin board • On the back, identify and explain the five areas of development.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) • Findings & Ideas • Believed that personality develops through a series of stages • Experiences in childhood profoundly affect adult life • Significance • Childhood is much more important than previously thought and its effects are longer lasting
Jean Piaget (1896-1980) • Findings & Ideas • The first to study children scientifically • Focused on how children learned • Believed that children go through four stages of learning • Significance • Children must be given learning tasks appropriate to their level of development
Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) • Findings & Ideas • Wrote that biological development and cultural experience influence children’s ability to learn • Social contact is essential to intellectual development • Significance • Children should be given the opportunity for frequent social interaction
Eric Ericson (1902-1994) • Findings & Ideas • Like Freud, said that personality develops in stages • Thought that each stage includes a unique psychological crisis • If that crisis is met in a positive way, the individual develops normally • Significance • Parents and caregivers must be aware of, and sensitive to, children’s needs at each stage of development and support them through crises.
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) • Findings & Ideas • Argued that when a child’s have positive results, they will be repeated. • Negative results will make the actions stop • Significance • Parents and other caregivers can affect a child’s behavior through the use of negative and positive feedback
Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917-2005) • Findings & Ideas • Outlined layers of environment that affect a child’s development, such as the child’s own biology, family/community environment, and society. • Significance • Child’s primary relationship with a caregiver needs to be stable, loving and lasting
Albert Bandura (b. 1925) • Findings & Ideas • Said that children learn by imitating others • Disagreed with Skinner. • Pointed out that although the environment shapes behavior, behavior also affects environment • Significance • Caregivers must provide good examples for children to follow
Why observe children? • Offers you the chance to see children as individuals • Meeting the challenges of development in their own way & in their own time • See a child’s personality • Adapt activities to a child’s needs • Identify children who may have disabilities or require extra care • Research – early intervention – do better over the long term • Feedback
How to Observe Young Children • Knowing what to observe & how to analyze it • Observing – more than just watching • Written record – analyze • Separate fact(objective (seen & heard)) from opinion (subjective) • Assumption – fact taken for granted • You think you know, but do you really?? • Do not make judgments • Smiling does not mean happy
Observations • What down what you see when you see it • Wait – forget • Write down: • Date, time, # of children, # of adults, names and ages • Wait down exact ages • 2 year old (is she 2 years and 1 month, 2 years and 10 months = BIG difference)
Running Record • Record of everything for a set period of time • Useful • Just getting to know the child/children • Concentrating on a certain type of development/area
Anecdotal Record • Report of a child’s actions that concentrates on a specific behavior or area of development • Ex: adjustment to a new child care center. Every morning (two weeks) the observer could record how a child behaves upon arriving at the center
Frequency Count • A tally of how often a certain behavior occurs • Useful: when trying to change unwanted behavior • First – observer find a baseline – a count made before any steps are taken to try to change behavior • After attempts to change behavior – additional frequency counts – is it working?
Developmental Checklists • List of skills children should master or behaviors they should exhibit at a certain age
When observing • Must keep everything CONFIDENTIAL – protection of another person’s privacy by limiting access to personal information