Educational Theorists And Their Theories
Child Development Theory • Explains how children develop: • Morally, socially, cognitively, physically, emotionally • And provides ways to apply this theory to practice
Erikson – 8 Stages of Man Individuals pass through different crisis at different ages. InfantTrust vs Mistrust ToddlerAutonomy vs Shame and Doubt PreschoolerInitiative vs Guilt School-Age ChildIndustry vs Inferiority AdolescentIdentity vs Role Confusion Young AdultIntimacy vs Isolation Middle-Age AdultGenerativityvs Stagnation Older AdultIntegrity vs Despair Dealing with each crisis in a positive way results in normal development. Parents & Caregivers must be sensitive to each child’s needs at each stage.
Freud, Sigmund Personality develops through a series of stages. Emotional experiences in childhood profoundly effect adulthood.
Maslow – Hierarchy of Needs Humans naturally strive to satisfy needs. There are 5 levels of needs. Each must be satisfied before moving on to the next.
Piaget, Jean Piaget’s developmental stages of a child: 0-2 years sensorimotor – motor development 3 -7 years pre-operation – intuitive 4-11 years concrete operational – logical, no abstractions 12-15 years formal operations – abstract thinking Children should be given learning tasks suitable for their age of thinking.
Skinner – Learned Conditioning (Behaviorism) Learning results in changes in behavior. • If an action repeatedly brings a positive result, it will be repeated. • If an action repeatedly brings a negative result, it will stop. • Rewards & punishments may be used to influence behavior.
Montessori – Maria Montessori Children learn by using their senses. They learn best when pursuing their own interests. Children need to touch and manipulate.
Gesell, Arnold Children master various skills in order; Gesell determined the typical order.
Bandura, Albert Children learn by modeling. Environment shapes behavior AND behavior affects environment. Parents & Caregivers must provide good examples.
Coles, Robert Parents and Caregivers are role models for moral development. Children learn by example.
Vygotsky - ZPD Biological development and cultural experience influence a child’s ability to think and learn. Social contact is essential for intellectual development.