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Nursing Theorists

Nursing Theorists

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Nursing Theorists

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  1. Nursing Theorists Week 11 and 12

  2. Definitions • Theory- a set of related statements that describes or explains phenomena in a systematic way • Concept-a mental idea of a phenomenon • Construct- a phenomena that cannot be observed and must be inferred

  3. Definitions • Proposition- a statement of relationship between concepts • Conceptual model- made up of concepts and propositions

  4. Nursing Theorists • Florence Nightingale, Hildegard Peplau, Virginia Henderson, Fay Abdella, Ida Jean Orlando, Dorothy Johnson, Martha Rogers, Dorothea Orem, Imogene King, Betty Neuman, Sister Calista Roy, Jean Watson, Rosemary Rizzo Parse, Madeleine Leininger, Patricia Benner

  5. Concepts in the nursing metaparadigm • Person • Recipient of care, including physical, spiritual, psychological, and sociocultural components • Individual, family, or community

  6. Concepts in the nursing metaparadigm • Environment • All internal and external conditions, circumstances, and influences affecting the person

  7. Concepts in the nursing metaparadigm • Health • Degree of wellness or illness experienced by the person

  8. Concepts in the nursing metaparadigm • Nursing • Actions, characteristics and attributes of person giving care

  9. Florence Nightingale Environmental Theory • First nursing theorist • Unsanitary conditions posed health hazard (Notes on Nursing, 1859) • 5 components of environment • ventilation, light, warmth, effluvia, noise • External influences can prevent, suppress or contribute to disease or death

  10. Nightingale’s Concepts • Person • Patient who is acted on by nurse • Affected by environment • Has reparative powers • Environment • Foundation of theory. Included everything, physical, psychological, and social

  11. Nightingale’s Concepts • Health • Maintaining well-being by using a person’s powers • Maintained by control of environment • Nursing • Provided fresh air, warmth, cleanliness, good diet, quiet to facilitate person’s reparative process

  12. Hildegard PeplauInterpersonal Relations Model

  13. Hildegard PeplauInterpersonal Relations Model • Based on psychodynamic nursing • using an understanding of one’s own behavior to help others identify their difficulties • Applies principles of human relations • Patient has a felt need

  14. Peplau’s Concepts • Person • An individual; a developing organism who tries to reduce anxiety caused by needs • Lives in instable equilibrium • Environment- Not defined

  15. Peplau’s Concepts • Health • Implies forward movement of the personality and human processes toward creative, constructive, productive, personal, and community living

  16. Peplau’s Concepts • Nursing • A significant, therapeutic, interpersonal process that functions cooperatively with others to make health possible • Involves problem-solving

  17. Virginia Henderson

  18. Virginia Henderson The Nature of Nursing “The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will, or knowledge.

  19. Virginia Henderson And to do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible. She must in a sense, get inside the skin of each of her patients in order to know what he needs”.

  20. Virginia Henderson “She is temporarily the consciousness of the unconscious, the love of life for the suicidal, the leg of the amputee, the eyes of the newly blind, a means of locomotion for the infant, knowledge and confidence for the young mother, the mouthpiece for those too weak or withdrawn to speak, and so on.”

  21. Fay Abdella- Topology of 21 Nursing Problems

  22. Fay AbdellaTopology of 21 Nursing Problems • A list of 21 nursing problems • Condition presented or faced by the patient or family. • Problems are in 3 categories • physical, social and emotional • The nurse must be a good problem solver

  23. Abdella’s Concepts • Nursing • A helping profession • A comprehensive service to meet patient’s needs • Increases or restores self-help ability • Uses 21 problems to guide nursing care • Health • Excludes illness • No unmet needs and no actual or anticipated impairments

  24. Abdella’s Concepts • Person • One who has physical, emotional, or social needs • The recipient of nursing care. • Environment • Did not discuss much • Includes room, home, and community

  25. Ida Jean OrlandoDeliberative Nursing Process

  26. Ida Jean OrlandoDeliberative Nursing Process • The deliberative nursing process is set in motion by the patient’s behavior • All behavior may represent a cry for help. Patient’s behavior can be verbal or non-verbal. • The nurse reacts to patient’s behavior and forms basis for determining nurse’s acts. • Perception, thought, feeling

  27. Ida Jean OrlandoDeliberative Nursing Process • Nurses’ actions should be deliberative, rather than automatic • Deliberative actions explore the meaning and relevance of an action.

  28. Dorothy JohnsonBehavioral Systems Model

  29. Dorothy JohnsonBehavioral Systems Model • The person is a behavioral system comprised of a set of organized, interactive, interdependent, and integrated subsystems • Constancy is maintained through biological, psychological, and sociological factors.

  30. Dorothy JohnsonBehavioral Systems Model • A steady state is maintained through adjusting and adapting to internal and external forces.

  31. Johnson’s 7 Subsystems • Affiliative subsystem • social bonds • Dependency • helping or nuturing • Ingestive • food intake • Eliminative • excretion

  32. Dorothy JohnsonBehavioral Systems Model 7 Sub Systems • Sexual • procreation and gratification • Agressive • self-protection and preservation • Achievement • efforts to gain mastery and control

  33. Johnson’s Concepts • Person • A behavioral system comprised of subsystems constantly trying to maintain a steady state • Environment • Not specifically defined but does say there is an internal and external environment

  34. Dorothy JohnsonBehavioral Systems Model • Health • Balance and stability. • Nursing • External regulatory force that is indicated only when there is instability.

  35. Martha Rogers Unitary Human Beings

  36. Martha Rogers Unitary Human Beings • Energy fields • Fundamental unity of things that are unique, dynamic, open, and infinite • Unitary man and environmental field • Universe of open systems • Energy fields are open, infinite, and interactive

  37. Martha RogersUnitary Human Beings • Pattern • Characteristic of energy field • A wave that changes, becomes complex and diverse • Four dimensionality • A nonlinear domain with out time or space

  38. Roger’s Definitions • Integrality • Continuous and mutual interaction between man and environment • Resonancy • Continuous change longer to shorter wave patterns in human and environmental fields

  39. Martha RogersUnitary Human Beings • Helicy • Continuous, probabilistic, increasing diversity of the human and envrionmental fields. • Characterized by nonrepeating rhymicities • Change

  40. Dorothea Orem Self-Care Model

  41. Dorothea Orem Self-Care Model • Self-care comprises those activities performed independently by an individual to promote and maintain person well-being • Self care agency is the individual’s ability to perform self care activities

  42. Dorothea Orem Self-Care Model • Self- care deficit occurs when the person cannot carry out self-care • The nurse then meets the self-care needs by acting or doing for;guiding, teaching, supporting or providing the environment to promote patient’s ability

  43. Dorothea Orem Self-Care Model • Wholly compensatory nursing system • Patient dependent • Partially compensatory • Patient can meet some needs but needs nursing assistance • Supportive educative • Patient can meet self care requisites, but needs assistance with decision making or knowledge

  44. Imogene KingGoal Attainment Theory

  45. Imogene KingGoal Attainment Theory • Open systems framework • Human beings are open systems in constant interaction with the environment • Personal System • individual; perception, self, growth, development, time space, body image • Interpersonal • Society

  46. Imogene KingGoal Attainment Theory • Personal System • Individual; perception, self, growth, development, time space, body image • Interpersonal • Socialization; interaction, communication and transaction • Society • Family, religious groups, schools, work, peers

  47. Imogene KingGoal Attainment Theory • The nurse and patient mutually communicate, establish goals and take action to attain goals

  48. Imogene KingGoal Attainment Theory • Each individual brings a different set of values, ideas, attitudes, perceptions to exchange

  49. Betty Neuman Systems Model

  50. Betty NeumanHealth CareSystems Model • The person is a complete system, with interrelated parts • maintains balance and harmony between internal and external environment by adjusting to stress and defending against tension-producing stimuli